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    园林景观工程施工图常见问题及解决方法初探
    2019-01-01  点击:[]

    园林景观工程施工图常见问题及解决方法初探

    作者李佳毅、何鉴、邵花

    要:文章针对景观工程设计、图纸校审、施工现场配合和项目综合管理的过程中,从总体到细部,从硬质景观到绿化种植设计,涵盖与景观相关的其它工种的协调与配合的各个方面,经常出现的一些具有典型特征的质量通病,探究其发生的原因,分析其可能会引起的连锁问题,并给出改进方案或解决方法。

    关键词:规范化特殊性通用性自然规律工种协调

    AbstractThere are many typical and common problems during the process of landscape engineering design, drawing review, construction site coordination and project integrated management. Aimed at these problems covered all aspects such as the general and the details, the hard landscape and the planting design, coordination with other majors associated with the landscape architecture projects, the authors of this article try to inquiry the reasons , analysis the chain problems may be caused and find the solutions and improvements.

    Key wordsStandardization, Characteristic, Generality, Nature, Coordination

    引言

    风景园林学是一门古老而年轻的学科。作为现代学科意义上的风景园林学,它是用艺术的手段处理人、建筑与环境之间复杂关系的一门学科。园林景观工程作为建设工程的一个类型,主要研究的是如何在最大限度发挥园林综合功能的前提之下,通过园林造景技艺及工程施工,去解决园林工程中的建筑物、构筑物和园林风景间矛盾统一的问题。

    园林景观工程在设计阶段,在对国家、行业和地方标准及图集的选用,以及设计文件的深度方面的要求,都与其他类别的建设工程有类似之处,在此不作赘述。而本文将选取作者多年以来,在参与园林景观工程设计、图纸审核审校、施工现场配合和项目综合管理的过程中,所发现的一些具有园林景观工程典型特征且经常发生的质量通病,探究其发生的原因,分析其可能会引起的连锁问题。最终,通过科学的甄别和解析,给出具有理论支撑和实践经验基础的改进方案或解决方法。

    1总图的规范化表达

    1.1设计说明

    园林景观项目的施工图设计总说明,是设计质量控制中最为薄弱的环节。

    1.1.1针对性

    每一个项目都有其自身的特殊性,在编制施工图设计总说明时,应当有针对性地就其特殊之处(包括特别设计、特色节点、特别工艺、特殊材料的运用等),做出清晰的阐述,以便指导施工。即使是套用,也应该筛辨剔除那些对与施工完全不相干的内容的描述。一个工程项目应该拥有一份完整的,与方案初衷、造价控制、项目性质、注意事项等完全匹配且度身定制的阐述说明。

    1.1.2依据性规范

    在描述设计依据性规范条文时,不应采用“与本项目相关的现行国家标准、设计规范及项目所属地地方法规、规程和规定”如此笼统且毫无针对性的文字描述,而应当将设计中涉及到的规范、规程的具体名称罗列清楚。在罗列具体规范、规程时,应选用最新颁布执行的版本。旧版本已经在新版本颁布之日起失效,不能再作为任何设计的参考和依据。不同性质的项目,应选用有针对性的规范、规程作为依据。

    1.2定位与尺寸标注

    建筑工程主要通过轴线定位,而园林景观工程的定位则主要通过坐标系、相对尺寸标注和方格网,并且多数情况下,是三者共同作用,相互之间配合使用。只有这样,才能较为完整地将项目中的道路、广场、建筑物、构筑物、园林设施小品、绿化种植等设计元素清晰而准确地表达出来。

    1.2.1大地坐标定位

    大地坐标系是定位图中的最高层级定位,是惟一而永恒的。但设计中经常出现点位选取随意且无逻辑,既未考虑施工成本,也没体现施工组织的工艺特性。点位密密麻麻虽然看着热闹,但往往忽略对关键点位的拾取。以自然曲线的道路定位为例:在等宽路段,只须控制如下关键点位——道路中心线交叉点、各段弧线的起止端点、每隔10米的途中点、坡道前后两端的变坡点,再配合路幅宽度的尺寸标注,就足够表达清楚了。

    1.2.2工程坐标定位

    工程坐标系是为了便于施工,而根据具体工程项目的情况自行设置的坐标系统。因此,工程坐标系的选择应与定位区域主要的线形方向一致,并在备注中说明;原点(A0,B0)应选取定位区域内用地红线的角点或标志物的中心点这类不易改变或者对园林景观布局定位有决定性作用的点,并且必须说明:相当于大地坐标系(X=xx.xxx, Y=xx.xxx),B轴的正方向与Y轴正方向重合或者成角度数。如此一来,十分有利于简化定位和减少尺寸标注的数量。

    1.2.3尺寸标注

    尺寸标注最常见的问题是:层级不分、没有表达与关键点(如已经标注完成的定位点)或轴线间的策应关系,造成识图、读图的障碍。其实,尺寸标注可以根据图纸的实际比例以及被表达区域的特点灵活选择,但至少应标明轴线尺寸和轮廓尺寸,并且尺寸标注应当与定位图中已经定位完成的点或轴线发生依托关系,使其形成一脉相承、清晰明了的数据体系。

    1.2.4方格网辅助定位

    局部放大或者图形特别复杂的区域可以采用方格网来配合定位,选择极细线来作为方格网的线型,避免对图形形成干扰,或者因线型的不连续,导致方格网纵横线交叉点的缺失,不利于定位。

    以上所说的坐标系和尺寸标注是定位过程中的必备程序。在具体应用时,应当根据项目的规模、布局和图形特点合理搭配使用。抽丝剥茧、层层推进、细细梳理,出图时自然便可规避此类问题。

    1.3竖向与标高

    竖向设计和标高标注是设计文件中需要特别重视的另一项内容。除了借助于剖面图、立面图来阐述高程关系以外,如何在平面图上,针对不同性质的区域(如道路、硬地广场、种植区等),高效而准确地选取适合到位的表达方式,的确是一个系统性的问题。

    1.3.1场地外围

    一个项目的红线边缘总会与场地外围产生交界,这些交接点位的数据获取和数据本身的准确程度,是确定场地内竖向造型、景观风貌和排水走向的先决条件和改造依据。其中那些关键点位的关键数据,必须得到有效梳理和充分消化。

    1.3.2道路的标高

    一般而言,景观项目中的道路标高不必采用市政道路设计中复杂的计算和标写方式,但是如下所罗列的仍是必备信息,必须在绘图中得以体现:纵坡和横坡的坡度,单坡还是双坡的明确,道路中心线交叉点标高,坡道纵坡前后起止的变坡线的标高,坡度、路面排水至雨水口的坡向以及雨水口最低点的控制标高。

    1.3.3广场的标高

    广场的标高标注是问题多发的盲点区域。首先,需要明确的是任何一块室外硬地广场都不应该是平的。换句话说,再小的广场由于有室外排水的需求,广场范围内不会统一都是一个标高数据。其次,广场面积普遍较大,各角点均需与周边的竖向标高相衔接,所以广场一定会被划分成几个块面,甚至采用不同的坡度,坡向就近安设雨水口或是雨水边沟。最后,真正完善的设计图纸,应该把广场的各汇水面的分水线表达出来,并标注最高点、最低点和排水坡向,并在计算后注明排水坡度。其实这也是基层浇筑中标高位置的推算依据,十分重要且不可或缺。

    1.3.4绿化种植区的标高

    绿化种植区域,通常会采用等高线的方式来表示地形起伏的变化和造型结构的特征。在绘制图纸时,必须根据地形的规模与尺度,选取合适统一的等高距。首曲线间的间距,应在复核和推算过坡度之后进行绘制,如果出现坡度超过土壤安歇角(23.4°)的情况,则必须考虑采取调整等高线分布或者局部设置挡土墙的方式,以避免土体滑坡的危险。同时每个丘起地形的丘顶最高处,宜标上标高数据。

    2详图的通用性和特殊性表达

    在园林景观工程的设计过程中,常常会碰到一些设计要素的表达,既具通用性,又有特殊性。很多设计文件会采用通用详图与特殊大样分开表达的方式,这是一种值得推荐的做法。因此,对于通用性节点的逻辑性归纳和对特殊性节点的准确拆分,是鉴定一套图纸是否优质的一项重要指标。

    2.1地面铺装

    2.1.1起铺线的调整

    地面铺装的通用性画法是在平面图上,采用指定比例的网格图例进行填充划分。但在填充时,应充分考量起铺线的设定对最终效果的影响,以及对材料加工、人工铺砌成本的影响。

    2.1.2边块的尺寸调整

    在采用标准模数模板铺装时,有时会碰到某些区域的净尺寸并不在模数之内,这样有可能产生零碎边缘块面,从而影响美观程度。因此,建议设计时,将边缘碎料和临近的单块规格板材合二为一,单独定加工一块放大板材进行收边处理。如此实施,将大大提升项目的细部品质。

    2.2栏杆与扶手

    2.2.1栏杆

    栏杆一般是指:安全防护性栏杆。在栏杆设计中存在高度上的误区。在现有的国家规范中,对室外护栏的高度要求如下:

    《城市绿地设计规范》GB 50420-2007

    6.1.6依山或傍水且对游人存在安全隐患的道路,应设置安全防护栏杆,栏杆高度必须大于1.05 m。

    《公园设计规范》CJJ48-92

    7.1.2……凡游人正常活动范围边缘临空高差大于1.0 m处,均设护栏设施,其高度应大于1.05 m。

    由此可见,一般情况栏杆高度只需大于1.05 m即可,没有必要使用过高的栏杆造成视觉上的压迫感。

    2.2.2扶手

    扶手一般是设置在坡道和台阶两侧或中间位置的,它的高度不必超过人体重心,不必像栏杆那样起到围挡作用,或使人产生必要的安全感。换言之,扶手不是栏杆,它的高度不应错参栏杆,它的尺寸与高度应符合人体工程学中对手扶功能的需求。(见表1)

    表1各类扶手规范标高参照表

    序号

    使用位置

    高度数值

    扶手截面尺寸

    备注

    1

    坡道、台阶的两侧或中间

    90 cm

    45~50 cm

    室外踏步级数≥3级,应设置扶手

    2

    轮椅通行坡道

    (无障碍通道)

    高扶手85 cm

    低扶手65 cm

    35~45 cm

    圆形扶手指直径

    矩形扶手指面宽

    3

    人行天桥、地道

    高扶手90 cm

    低扶手70 cm

    45~50 cm

    同上

    4

    活动范围边缘临空高差大于1.0 m

    扶杆高度>105cm

    扶手90 cm

    45~50 cm

    应设栏杆式扶手

    2.3台阶

    在园林景观工程设计中,涉及最为广泛的当属台阶详图。但是,越是看似简单的元素,就越是容易表达不清。

    2.3.1台阶与挡墙

    通常在设计台阶时,台阶左右两侧会采用低矮挡土墙进行收边处理。随着台阶的梯段走势,两侧挡墙往往也会有相应的变坡处理。但是,在绘制挡墙变坡线的时候,需要特别注意变坡线的实际位置,必须经过剖面图的绘制推导出来,其实挡土墙的上下端两处变坡线与台阶线不存在等量平移的关系。

    2.3.2防滑

    在处理室外台阶的面层时,应采用毛面肌理,以起到防滑的作用。在此基础之上,还可以考虑在踏面近檐口处,加设防滑槽和警示标贴,借此提升安全系数。

    2.4围墙

    这是在各类园林景观工程中经常会碰到的问题。围墙的特点是:分布区域广,通常围绕场地周边,呈线性布置;形式统一,通常平面上表示柱点位置,配上一张立面图就解决了。但是这个看似简单的设计要素,其实真要细究起来,其中变数很多,情况也较为复杂。

    由于用地边界的边长各不相同,其单边长度不会与围墙单元模数正好吻合,而且围墙通常需要做基础,所以受地质情况和地下管线的影响较大,很有可能由于空间上的位置冲突而需要调整柱间距离。另外,为了美观,很多围墙每一榀的形制或造型是有变化的,因此,简约的、图文配合的表达形式,将有助于施工读图和效果控制。

    2.5水泥砂浆

    在室外景观工程的节点设计中,必然会碰到关于水泥砂浆粘结的工艺处理问题。在涉及到具体选用哪种配比时,标写多显混乱。因此,本文依据现有的各类室外工程图集和多年的驻场实践经验,对如何选用配比砂浆做了梳理。(见表2)

    表2水泥砂浆常用配比适用范围参照表

    编号

    水泥:砂子(配比)

    适用范围

    1

    1:1水泥砂浆

    精细装饰勾缝(花岗岩、清水砖、地砖装饰的墙地面)

    2

    1:2水泥砂浆

    抹面赶光(台阶或坡道完成面)或装饰性勾缝(浆砌块石料、石挡墙)

    3

    1:2.5水泥砂浆

    块料灌缝(块石、卵石散水明沟)或抹面(排水明沟)勾缝(路缘石)

    4

    1:3干硬性水泥砂浆

    地坪铺装为主(花岗石、地砖)

    3种植设计

    一项完整的园林景观种植施工图设计,应包含三部分内容:种植设计说明、种植设计图纸及苗木表。

    3.1种植设计说明

    通常种植设计说明中应有以下内容:对种植土的要求,如现状情况、改良措施、土层厚度等;种植季节及施工要求,如一般常绿、落叶植物适宜种植的季节、施工注意事项等;种植场地平整要求;苗木选择,无病虫害、生长健壮、有正常树龄分枝等;如果工程项目中有屋顶种植和墙面种植等非常规的种植方式,则需要对此进行专项说明。与硬质景观的设计说明一样,种植说明不得照搬套用、千篇一律。由于各个地区土壤、气候、植物生长情况皆有所不同,这一点应该特别重视。

    3.2种植设计图纸

    包括种植总平面图、平面分区图、上木种植图和下木种植图。

    种植总平面图反映了项目所涉及植物的种类、种植位置、各种植物图例以及它们和建筑、河流、土建小品的关系。需要注意的是:同一种植物在整套图纸中应使用同一图例,图例大小应如实反映设计规格。简单的种植设计可以用一张图纸表述,复杂的种植设计应采用上下木种植图分别表述,但是必须有图纸能够完整地表达上、下木之间的关系,帮助工程各方准确理解设计意图,组织施工。

    3.3苗木表

    苗木表是对工程设计所用苗木进行分类及数量统计的。目前的园林景观工程设计和施工中经常会出现的问题是:出于对建成效果的考虑,业主往往会要求设计师在设计时加大片植小灌木的种植密度,保证初成效果,可在建成之后的养护时,又未做科学抽稀,导致植苗没有充分的生长空间,影响长势,甚至可能导致植株枯亡。

    事实上,园林景观的发展趋势已经开始从“以人为本”走向了“尊重自然”。希望通过种植植物来创造良好的生态环境,就应该尊重植物的生长特性。因此,原则上枝叶蓬松的小灌木的种植密度就要放稀疏,保证光照与通风;枝叶密集的小灌木,可适当密植;片植小灌木设计应充分考虑与上木植株的协同及后续养护的可操作性(修剪、间苗、补苗等)。同时,密植小苗应注明进苗规格、修剪规格及最终景观规格。备注中,要注明乔木的分枝点、分枝级别、修剪保留分枝等,愈详细的参数控制,愈有助于控制最终的施工效果。在面积较小区域以及乔灌木密度较大区域,提倡用阴生地被植物代替草坪。

    4.工种间协调

    园林景观工程与其他建设工程一样,离不开其他工种的密切配合。除了地下管线的综合协调以外,园林景观专业还应该将所有的检修井位,暴露在地表的机电设备以及所有的园林小品、城市家具、灯具、配套设施,包括基础的范围,拍合表示在总图中。这样做不仅是为了保证地下管线的铺设满足规范要求,设备设施的基础互不影响,而且还能使地面铺装保持完整、美观,绿化种植的地下根系有足够的生长空间,保证良好的景观效果。

    4.1与电气专业

    虽然在某些地区的园林景观设计文件要求中,将灯具布点图列入电气专业图纸中。但是笔者认为,在目前仍有较多景观工程尚未引入专业照明的情况下,对夜间景观效果的把控,更是需要景观专业和电气专业通力协作,并在外观造型、点位间距、照度计算、灯具选型、安全防护和安装方式等一系列问题的统筹中,构建出一个既能切合实际、又能提升品质的艺术化照明场景。

    4.2与给排水专业

    给排水专业与园林景观专业的关系最是密切,景观设计师需要与给排水工程师协调各种水景的给排方式和效果控制,使给排水工程师通过扬程和流量的计算,选择适用管径和设备选型。同时双方还应讨论各功能区域的排水方式、控制汇水面积、确定收水口的位置和形式,再据此确定场地区域的最低点位、排水坡向和坡度,避免场地积水。特别是绿化种植中的灌溉设计,目前已经越来越普遍地得到应用,因而更需要跨工种的密切合作。

    4.3与暖通专业

    对于暖通专业,可能在一般概念里,主要是和建筑、室内装饰工程间关系更为密切,与绝大部分处于室外自然环境中的园林景观工程并无多大交集。事实上却不尽如此。除了像一些通风管井、泄爆口的景观化处理以外,一些不希望被关注到的设备外机也完全可以通过事先的沟通,调整位置和朝向,很好地将其“隐藏”起来。

    4.4与结构专业

    园林景观工程中通常会涉及景观建筑、小品工程和假山叠石工程。大量的荫蔽构筑物(木结构工程、竹结构工程、钢木组合等)、水景水池、挡土墙、景墙、围墙、架空栈道平台等设施,都需要景观与结构专业的并肩协作。结构专业所需的原始数据应由景观专业先行提供,而结构专业的最终出图,也应在景观专业的相应节点详图中合并体现。如此一来,既可以防止两专业图纸间的错、漏、碰、缺,又便于施工方在施工过程中的读图、识图。最后,还应该请结构专业负责人在所涉及的景观详图上进行会签,确保两厢拍图无误。

    5.结语

    一部好的翻译作品追求的境界是“信”“达”“雅”,一套优质的园林景观工程施工图也应如此:“信”就是忠于设计的意图,表达精准,不会引起歧义;“达”就是原则清晰,逻辑性强,易于读图;“雅”就是图面布局合理,详略得当,制图规范。这样才可以让施工方充分领会、毫无疑问地组织施工,让最终建成的成果能如人所愿。

    The common Problems & Solutions of the Landscape Architecture Construction Documents

    Introduction

    Landscape architecture is a both ancient and young subject. Landscape science as a modern discipline refers to the artistic means that can handle complicated relations between human nature, architectures and environment. Being a type of construction work, landscape engineering focuses mainly on issues that how to deal with the contradictory unity of relations between buildings, structures and garden views on the premise of bringing landscape comprehensive functions into fullest play.

    During the design phase of landscape engineering, on the choice of national, local, industry standards and collective drawings, or on the demands of the depth of the design documents, it has similarities, to some extent, with other construction work in some aspects. The authors have been engaged in design, correction and review of drawings, support work in construction field and general management of projects concerning with landscape engineering for many years and found some quality defects may often occur and go with typical characteristics. Through exploring the causes and analysis chain problems that may arise, the improvement projects or solutions with theoretical support and practical experience can be given by means of discriminating and analysis scientifically.

    1 The Normative Expression of General Drawing

    1.1 Description of Design

    The general specification of construction drawing design in the landscape project is the weakest part during the quality control of design.

    1.1.1 Pertinence

    Each project has its own particularity. The general specification of construction drawing design should be well-targeted at the specialty with clarity (including the use of special design, characteristic details, unusual technology, and special materials) in order to direct the construction. Even if it is applied mechanically, the completely irrelevant parts should be eliminated. An engineering project should have a complete specification which perfectly matches the plan purpose, cost control, project nature, and announcements.

    1.1.2 Referenced provision

    When describing the referenced provisions of design, the text description like “the current national standard, design criterion related to this project and the local laws, regulations or rules of the project site” could not be used because that is too ambiguous. The full names of the standard procedures involved in the design should be clearly listed. Moreover, the latest version of execution should be used rather than use old version with invalid information as reference. Targeted standard procedures should be applied according to different projects of different natures.

    1.2 Positioning and Dimensioning

    Constructional engineering mainly depends on axes to fix position. But landscape engineering mainly depends on coordinate system, relative dimension and square grid to locate. In most cases, all three are needed. On the basis of the combined effects and interaction among the three, design elements in a project such as roads, plazas, buildings, structures, external facility ornaments, planting areas can be expressed completely, clearly and accurately.

    1.2.1 Geodetic coordinate system

    Geodetic coordinate systemis the highest level in location map and its positioning is only and eternal. But one question that comes up often in design is that the point selections are random and illogical without thinking about construction cost and how to reflect processing property of construction organization. It seems that point locations are thickly dotted, but the key points are neglected. Take the location of road with natural curve for example, on an aequilate road section, if the intersection of road centerline, the start-stop endpoints of arcs, midpoints every other 10 meters, and grade change points at both ends of the ramp can be controlled, along with the size marking of roadway width, that will be already clear enough.

    1.2.2 Project coordinate system

    Project Coordinate Systemis self-set coordinate system on the purpose of ease of construction according to the specific circumstances of the project. The choice of project coordinate system should be in accord with the main linear direction of the position area and it must be specified in remarks. The origin (A0,B0) should be the angular point of property line or the central point of landmark, for they are entrenched or decisive for landscape layout. Explanation should be added that this is equivalent to geodetic coordinate system (X=xx.xxx, Y=xx.xxx); B-axis positive direction and Y-axis positive direction are either overlap or angular. So it is very helpful to simplify positioning and reduce size marking.

    1.2.3 Size marking

    The most common problems of size marking are that there are no hierarchical scales, no expression or key points (such as locating points have been marked), or coordinated relations betweenaxes. These problems give rise to reading obstacles. In fact, size marking can be chosen flexibly according to actual proportion of drawing and characteristics of expressed areas. But axis dimensions and overall dimensions should be marked at least and their size marking should rely on the relations of locating points or axis in the location map, forming a clear and correlative data system.

    1.2.4 Grid auxiliary positioning

    Square grid can help to match positioning in partial enlarged detail or areas having quite complicated figures. Square grid should use continuous hairlines to avoid interference with the figures and deficiency of intersection of grids.

    Coordinate system and size marking mentioned above are requisite parts in the positioning process. In specific application, they should be used by rational combination according to the scale, overall arrangement, graphical features of the project. Through a painstaking and meticulous way step by step, many problems in the drawings can be avoided.

    1.3 Vertical Design and Elevation

    Vertical design and elevation is another part should be put much emphasis in the design documents. In addition to use cutaway view and vertical view to give an account of the relationship between heights, it is indeed a systematic problem of how to use appropriate means of expressions efficiently and accurately on the areas with different features (such as road, plaza, architecture, structure and plant area) of the plan.

    1.3.1 Periphery of the site

    The property line of a project always has a common boundary with periphery of the site. The data acquisition of joint points and degree of accuracy of the data itself are prerequisite and basis for remoulding to confirm the vertical modeling, landscape style and way of drainage of the site. The key data of key points must be combed effectively and fully digested.

    1.3.2 The elevation of road

    Generally speaking, the elevation of roads in landscape project does not have to use complex calculation and way of labeling applied in municipal road design, but the following information are essential and must be reflected in drawing: the slope gradient of longitudinal slope and transverse slope; make sure whether it is one way gradient or double way gradient; the elevation of the intersection of road axis; the elevation and gradient of variable slope line at both ends of longitudinal slope; the slope aspect of surface drainage and gutter inlet; and control elevation of lowest point of gutter inlet.

    1.3.3 The elevation of plaza

    The elevation of plaza is blind spot with more problems. Firstly, what's need to be defined is that it should not be flat for any outdoor hard plaza. In other words, because of the need to drain off water, it is impossible for even the smallest plaza to have only one elevation data. Secondly, the area of plaza is generally large; each angular point should link up with the vertical elevation around. So the plaza has to be divided into several parts and even use different gradients, gutter inlets or rainwater side ditches nearby slope aspect. Finally, the improved design drawing should present divide lines of different catchments in the plaza and mark the highest point, lowest point, slope aspect of drainage and drainage gradient after calculation. Actually, thecalculation basis for elevation position is quite important and indispensable in base pouring and casting.

    1.3.4 The elevation of planting region

    The planting region usually uses contour lines to show hypsography andmodeling structure. During the drawing process, unified and suitable contour line must be selected according to the size and scale of the terrain. The spacing of intermediate contour should be drawn after rechecking and calculating the gradient. If the gradient exceeds soil angle of repose (23.4 degree), contour lines should be adjusted or set retaining wall in some parts in order to avoid the danger of soil landslide. At the same time, it had better mark the elevation of the highest point of each knap.

    2 Generality and particularity of detail drawing

    During the design process of landscape engineering, it is common to meet with some design considerations having bothgenerality and particularity. A lot of design documents will use both standard detail and special detail drawing but separately, which is recommendable. The logical conclusion of general details and accurate resolution of special details are important indicators to test whether a set of drawings are of high quality or not.

    2.1 Floor Decoration

    2.1.1 Adjustment of forming lines

    The general presentation drawing of floor decoration uses gridlines that have assigned proportion to fill and divide on the plan. When filling with the lines, the setting of the forming lines should be well considered for final effect and control on the cost of material processing and paving by manual work.

    2.1.2 Dimension adjusting of edges

    When applying standard moduleformwork paving, sometimes the net size of some areas is not within the module, which may produce fragmentary edges and affect the aesthetic measure. So it is suggested to combine fragmentary edges with adjacent boards and process an extra amplified board to edge. Through this way, the detail quality of the project will be significantly improved.

    2.2 Railings and Handrails

    2.2.1 Railing

    Railings generally refer to safety barriers. There is misunderstanding of the height in railing design. In the latest national standard, demands on the heights of outdoor railings are as follows:

    Code for the design of urban green spaceGB 50420-2007

    6.1.6 Roads neighboring mountains or rivers that may have hidden dangers for visitors should be set safety barriers whose heights must be over 1.05 m.

    Code for the design of parkCJJ48-92

    7.1.2 …Within all normal activity ranges open for visitors, if the elevation difference of edge is greater than 1.0 m, it will be necessary to set railings whose height should be over 1.05 m.

    Thus it can be seen that the height of railings just has to be greater than 1.05 m. There is no need to use excessively high railings to create oppressive sense on the vision.

    2.2.2 Handrail

    Handrail is usually set on the ramp, sides or the middle of the steps. The height of handrail does not need to be higher than gravity center of human body because it is not necessary for handrail to have an effect of barriers. In other words, the handrails are not railings. The height of handrail should not take that of railing as reference. Its size and height should accord with handrail functional needs in ergonomics.(Tablet 1)

    Tablet 1 Reference table of elevation specification requirements for different handrails

    No.

    Use location

    Height

    Sectional dimension

    Notes

    1

    ramp, sides or the middle of the steps

    90cm

    45-50cm

    outdoor steps grade>3

    need to set handrail

    2

    wheelchair access

    (barrier-free path)

    high 85cm

    low 65cm

    35-45cm

    round: diameter

    rectangle: face width

    3

    pedestrian overcrossing,

    underpass

    high 90cm

    low 70cm

    45-50cm

    the same as above

    4

    the elevation difference of edge is greater than 1.0m

    height of railing>105cm

    handrail 90cm

    45-50cm

    railing-style handrail should be set

    2.3 Steps

    In landscape engineering design, the detail drawings of steps are widely used. The seemingly simple element is easy to cause confusion because of unclear expression.

    2.3.1 Steps and retaining wall

    In the design of steps, low retaining walls are commonly used as edges at the sides of steps. The retaining walls on the two sides change in gradient along with the step levels. Special care needed when drawing variable slope line because the actual position of the slope line must be deduced after making cutaway view. In fact, the variable slope lines up and down of the retaining wall are not equivalent or translational to step lines (see chart 4).

    Chart 4 – the correct relation between variable slope line of retaining walls and step lines

    2.3.2 Skid resistance

    The surface processing of outdoor steps must use rough texture for function of skidproof. On the basis of this, antiskid slots and warning labels can be added to promote the safety coefficient.

    2.4 Wall

    This is a common problem in all kinds of landscape engineering. The characteristics of wall include wide distribution: usually around the site and in the form of linear arrangement; and unified style: usually show position points on the plan accompanied with a vertical plan. But if we dig into the seemingly simple design element, we may find that it brings on many changes and the conditions are relatively complex.

    Since the side lengths of site boundary are different,the unilateral length will not be precisely in line with the unit module of wall. Moreover, it is usual to make basics for wall. Considering that the effect of geological condition and underground pipelines, it is very possible to adjust the distance between position points because of positional conflict. In addition, for the sake of elegant appearance, here exist differences in shape, structure or mould among single units of wall. The concise way of expression that consists of both text and graphics is helpful for checking drawings and effect control.

    2.5 Cement mortar

    In the detail design of landscape engineering, the technology processing problem of using cement mortar to cohere will certainly happen. The descriptions of mix proportion choices are easy to cause confusion. According to the current outdoor engineering drawing collection and years of practical experience at sites, the following table is made.(Tablet 2)

    Tablet 2 The reference table of traditional mix proportion of cement mortar

    No.

    cement : sand

    (mix proportion)

    range of application

    1

    1 : 1 cement mortar

    fine decoration jointing (wall or ground decorated with granite, ganged brick or ground tile)

    2

    1 : 2 cement mortar

    plaster and smoothing (the finished surface of steps or ramps) or decorative jointing (mortared rubble, retaining wall)

    3

    1 : 2.5 cement mortar

    cementation of fissures (dimension stone, cobble apron open trench) or plaster (open drain) jointing (kerbstone)

    4

    1 : 3 dry cement mortar

    floor paving (granite or ground tile)

    3 Planting Design

    A complete construction blueprint of landscape planting should include three parts: planting design specification, planting design drawing and nursery stock table.

    3.1 Planting Design Specification

    Usually, planting design specification should include demands on soil (such as current situation, improving measures, soil thickness and so on), planting season and construction requirements (such as planting time suitable for general evergreen and deciduous plants, matters needing attention in construction and so on), planting site formation, choices of nursery stocks without plant diseases or insect pests, grow well and have normal branches with age. If there are unconventional planting patterns like roof planting or wall planting in the engineering project, special instructions have to be given. The same as design descriptions of hard landscape, planting descriptions are not supposed to indiscriminately imitate or copy all in the same key. Because the soil, climate, growth of plants are quite different in diverse regions.

    3.2 Planting Design Drawing

    Planting site-plan, zoning plans, tree planting drawings, bush and ground cover planting drawings are included.

    Planting site-plan shows the species, locations, graphics, and the relations between plants and architectures, rivers or ornaments. What calls for attention is that the same graphic should be used for the same plants in the drawings and the size of graphics should truthfully reflect design specification. Simple planting design can use one drawing to explain, but complicated ones should apply separate explanations by the means of tree planting drawings and ground cover planting drawings. And the relations of trees and ground cover bushes should also be explained by drawing in order to help participants in the projects understand the design idea well and organize construction.

    3.3 Nursery Stock Table

    The function ofnursery stock table is to clarify the species and amount of nursery stocks. The current frequent problem in landscape engineering design and construction is that proprietors often require designers to increase planting density of shrubs on a large scale in order to make initial effects better, but it is not good for maintenance later on. Because without scientific thinning, there is no sufficient growing space for stocks to grow well and perhaps cause plants to die.

    In fact, the development tendency of landscape science has changed from “people oriented” to “respect for nature”. If we hope to create a good environment through plantings, we should respect the growth characteristics of plants. Therefore, the planting density of shrubs with uncrowded branches should be relatively sparse to make sure illumination and ventilation. Shrubs with dense branches can be planted closely in a proper way. Sufficient consideration should be given to shrub design for its relations with trees and operability of maintenance later on (such as pruning, thinning, filling gaps and so on). At the same time, closely-planted seedlings should provide their purchasing specifications, pruning specifications and ultimate effect specifications. In remarks, the branching points, branching levels and retained branches of trees should be clarified. The clearer the parameter control is, the better final construction effect can be controlled. In small regions or regions with large planting density, shade ground covers are advocated to use instead of lawn.

    4 Coordination among Types of Work

    The same as other construction projects, landscape engineering could not work without close cooperation of other types of work. Apart from comprehensive coordination of underground pipelines, all the locations of manholes, electronic and mechanical devices above ground, landscape ornaments, urban furniture, lamps and lanterns, supporting facilities should be expressed in the general drawing. This is not only for making sure laying requirements of underground pipelines and non-interference of facilities, but also for the completeness and appearance of floor decoration, and sufficient growing space for root system of plants.

    4.1 Electrical Engineering

    Although some landscape design document requirements in some regions list distribution map of lamps into electrical engineering drawings, the authors suggest that considering that still a lot of landscape works are not introduced with professional lighting, controls on landscape effect at night need concerted efforts between landscape engineering and electrical engineering, trying to build an artistic lighting scene that can both gear to actual circumstances and promote quality in the overall consideration of appearance molding, space between point positions, illumination calculation, type selections of lamps, safety protection, installation, and other issues.

    4.2 Water Supply and Drainage

    For water supply and drainage, its relation with landscape is most relevant. Landscape designers and drainage engineers need to work together for water supply and drainage as well as effect controls of different waterscapes. Through calculations of head and flow, drainage engineer can choose applicable pipe diameter and equipment selection. Both sides also have to discuss about drainage methods in different functional areas, controlling catchment areas and confirming the locations and forms of water gaps. On the basis of what has been mentioned above, the lowest point position, drainage slope and aspect of the site can be certain in order to avoid water accumulation in the field. Close cooperation between types of work are needed and will become more and more common, especially in irrigation design of green planting.

    4.3 Heating and Ventilating

    In the general concept, heating and ventilating mainly has closer relation with architectures and interior decoration rather than landscape engineering that is mostly in natural environment outdoors. Apart from some landscaping treatment like ventilation tube andexplosion venting, some otherequipment that doesn’t want to be seen can adjust position or orientation to “hide” well through communication in advance.

    4.4 Structural Engineering

    Landscape architectures, ornament engineering and rockery engineering are commonly involved in landscape engineering. A lot of shading structures (timberwork, bamboo structure, steel and wood combination) and waterscapes, pools, retaining walls, landscape walls, bounding walls, boardwalks, platforms and other facilities all need cooperation between landscape and structural engineering. The original data that structural engineering needs should be provided in advance by landscape engineering; the final drawing of structural engineering should be reflected in relative detailed drawing of landscape engineering as well. As a result, problems like mistake, omission, interference and deficiency can be prevented in both drawings and this is also helpful for reading during the construction process. Finally, the director of structural engineering should be invited to countersign on the relative detailed drawing of landscape engineeringto make sure correctness.

    5 Conclusion

    An ideal translation is in pursuit for faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance, so is an ideal set of construction drawings for landscape engineering. Faithfulness is to be faithful to the intention of the design, to be accurate in expression without ambiguity; expressiveness is to be clear in principle, strong in logic, and easy in reading; elegance is to be sound in layout, reasonably detailed, and normative in drafting. Only in this way, the construction side can fully understand the design and organize construction without doubt and finallymake results as people wish.

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