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    基于老年人日常生活纬度社区公共空间优化设计的研究
    2019-01-01  点击:[]

    基于老年人日常生活纬度社区公共空间优化设计的研究

    作者:张玲 大连理工大学建筑与艺术学院

    摘要:本文通过对日常公共生活与公共空间理论的梳理,提出改善老年人生活品质的社区再生需要在掌握老年人日常生活行为习惯与心理需求的基础上进行。并通过对长春市三个社区老年人的问卷调研发现,既有社区和新规划社区中居住老年人的心理需求各有侧重。既有社区虽然建设年代久远,由于老年人对居住环境带有自主性,反而对空间有较强的归属感和安全感。利用这些心理因素,改善和优化公共空间设计,可以从本质上提升社区居住老年人的生活品质。

    关键词:老年人,日常生活,公共空间,生活品质

    Abstract: Based on the review of theories of daily public life and public space, this article puts forward a standpoint that the community renovation which can improve senior citizens’life quality should be based on the aged daily life style and behavior as well as their psychological demand. Meanwhile, a questionnaire inquiry has been made on senior citizens living situation in three communities in Changchun to show the different psychological need that the elderly ask for existed community and the newly-built one. For the existed community, the aged believe they are responsible for the environment, so it is easier for them to have a strong sense of belonging and a sense of security. Improving and optimizing public space design by making use of the above mentioned psychological factors can improve senior citizens’life quality in the community from the root.

    key words:Senior Citizens, Daily Life, Public Space, Quality of Life

    1、研究背景与目的

    中国目前已经成为世界老龄人口最多的国家,截止至2015年底,60岁以上的老年人口已达到2.22亿。虽然其中可自理的老年人占84%,但是根据“中国健康与养老追踪调查”的数据显示,近40%的老年人有明显的抑郁症状。身体上看似“可自理”的老年人却不是真正的“健康”,特别是独居和偶居的空巢老人患病率分别为47%和36%[1]。由于社会、经济、心理,以及退休后生活方式转变等因素影响,大部分老年人没有经历很好的“健康转变”1)[2](Health Transition)。有效预防老年抑郁症的途径之一就是鼓励老年人多参与户外活动,多与人交流并结交朋友2。可见,丰富的日常公共生活对老年抑郁症患者具有积极的影响与治疗作用。这其中公共空间对公共生活的影响不容忽视,发展与优化老年人所在社区的公共空间变得极为迫切。由于现阶段对公共空间的重视与认识度不够,城市活力及人性化[3]设计缺乏,以车辆为中心的规划范式与单体建筑取代城市空间,使“公共空间”面临越来越多的危机。另一方面,公共空间里看似美轮美奂的景观却存在着使用不便等弊端。针对“体验贫乏”的空间,要先掌握老年人的日常生活行为,在满足他们心理需求的基础上对社区的公共空间进行优化设计。

    本文的论述基于老年人日常生活纬度对社区公共空间优化设计的影响与作用,并选取长春市三个社区中居住的老年人进行问卷调查,通过分析老年人的日常公共生活行为与心理需求来反思社区公共空间的特质与不足,为今后社区再生与公共空间优化设计提供有效的参考依据。

    2、基于老年人日常公共生活的社区再生

    “社区再生”是指通过社区规划,带来社区形态在物质空间环境和社会空间环境上的改变,使社区的活力和可持续性得到提升的良性改变[4],社区再生被认为是提升城市活力的重要途径。世界老龄化率最高的日本3)随着高龄社会的推进,“复兴型地区再生”以及可持续发展的策略成为面对高龄社会的主导思想。2013年,日本高龄社会综合研究机构开始提出长寿社会(公众参与)社区规划(まちづくり4),地域包括介护,在地就劳以及地域社会(Community:社区)介护型居住环境的议题[5]。其中,老年人的生活质量以及所居住地域社会(社区)的生活环境成为关注的焦点。东京大学教授大月敏雄指出,老年人与子女之间的亲缘关系的重要性以及与居住社区之间地缘关系性的问题,并提出老年人不是单纯居住在“住宅”里,而是居住在“地域社会(社区)”里,要通过完善地域社会自治体来营建宜居的社区环境,从而在根本上提高老年人的生活质量[6]

    从历史发展的角度看,“公共空间”和“公共生活”曾被认为是不可分割的整体,但这些方面在工业化和现代化的发展进程中遗失了,这使得 先天就存在功能失调的城市环境被视为城市规划的重点,而以人为主导的城市生活被遗忘。简・雅各布斯在1961年出版的《美国大城市的死与生》一书中以描述公共生活为起点,警示人们反思以汽车主导城市的发展。她认为现代主义的功能分区思想毁掉了社会生活和城市建筑群间的连接强度[7]。1966年,丹麦建筑学家扬・盖尔(Jan Gehl)的文章用照片以叙事性的方式记录公共生活和公共空间的联系。通过更加人文的视角,用日常城市生活中熟悉的场景来强调空间是如何被使用的,用实例来证明什么有益什么无益,最终成果整理成书于1971年出版——《交往与空间》(Life between Building)。

    国际上对高龄问题的研究越来越侧重于老年人生活质量与宜居环境的研究,特别是基于老年人日常生活纬度上对社区公共空间形态的优化设计已成为热点。今后的研究方向更要打破建筑学中强烈的规范化色彩,增加科学分析性理论而不是依靠推测[8]。构建养老宜居环境要时刻关注以人为主导的、带有“自组织过程”特征的空间,以及对城市微观空间,即人们日常生活所处的空间环境[9]的研究。可见,今后对于养老宜居环境的研究要更加多元化,通过对空间的营建提升老年人的社会参与度,实现精神关怀,并丰富老年人的日常生活,这将是完善老年空间学研究的新的课题与方向。

    3、长春市部分社区老年居民的问卷调查与分析

    选取长春市三个典型社区的老年居民为对象,通过问卷调研与场景结合的方式,对老年人生活的社区及周边的空间认知进行梳理。

    问卷调查内容由四部分组成(见表1),分别就受访者基本情况、家庭成员信息、闲暇时间在社区空间与城市空间的行为活动等进行提问。针对社区空间的提问从活动内容、空间满足感以及与人交流等角度设置问题;针对城市空间的提问从相关空间与装置利用状况及满意度等角度进行勾选式问答的基础上,又对“理想公共空间”设置了自由回答式调查。

    表1调查项目

    基本属性

    年龄 性别 健康状况 经济状况

    家庭情况

    家庭成员构成 教育情况 住宅地情况

    社区空间

    室外空间利用情况 室外空间的满意度 邻里间的交流

    城市空间

    邻近公园的使用情况及满意度 理想的公共空间及相应设施

    表2调查问卷的统计

    对 象

    发布数

    回收数

    有效数

    在宅数

    回收率

    有效率

    MD社区

    110

    85

    56

    11

    77%

    66%

    DH社区

    110

    89

    51

    13

    80%

    57%

    MZ社区

    110

    98

    59

    15

    89%

    60%

    总 数

    330

    272

    166

    39

    82%

    61%

    调查问卷的统计情况如表2所示。从问卷调研可以看出,社区居住的老年人每天都会外出,室外空间的公共生活成为老年人日常生活中不可或缺的一部分。另外,由于既有社区老年人熟识度高,在任意空间(例如散步道)中就可以进行交流;而新规划社区则需要以趣味活动(例如象棋、扑克等)作为媒介来促进老年人之间的交流(如图1所示)。另外,在长春这样的寒冷地区,单纯的温度低并不是阻碍老年人进行日常公共活动的因素,而是室外空间的防滑性,这是老年人所担心的重要因素。此外,老年人对绿树集中地以及围绕型空间(例如广场)等的评价度很高(如图2所示)。另外,既有社区虽然建设年代久远,但是由于老年人对居住环境带有自主性,反而对空间有较强的归属感和安全感。利用这些心理因素,改善和提升公共空间,并以此渗透公共生活,将从本质上改善老年人的生活品质。

    Macintosh HD:Users:Angeline:Desktop:景观设计投稿:图片:1.选用的图片:余暇时间老人都做什么.jpg

    图1三个社区老年人闲暇时间在公共空间的行为活动

    Macintosh HD:Users:Angeline:Desktop:景观设计投稿:分析图:对于整体满意度的调查-1副本.jpg图2三社区老年人对于公共空间整体满意度的调查

    4、结论与展望

    由杨・盖尔对室外活动与公共空间的论述可知,室外空间贫乏的情况下,只能引起最低限度的必要活动。当空间质量高、物理条件良好的情况下,行为活动的质量会随之发生变化,行为活动的停留时间也会变长。可见,良好的物理条件是延长老年人停留时间的必要条件。另一方面,简・雅各布斯认为“物理空间”的更新仅仅是表象的翻新,在更新之后对空间贫乏的状态也只是位置转移,而没有从根本上得到改变。这就要求社区再生规划与设计要建立在了解老年人心理需求的基础上。由于既有社区和新规划社区所居住老年人的心理需求各有侧重,同样需要结合老年人“行为观察”与“实地场所空间类型”进行分析,了解并掌握这些因素对公共空间的影响,为今后的社区再生提供详实的理论基础与科学依据。

    注释:

    1) 健康转变(Health transition)主要表现为三个上升,即:①平均寿命上升;②慢性病发病率上升;③病态社会行为上升。人口老龄化和健康转变是20世纪出现的最为显著的两个人口现象,而且两者之间的关系非常密切。

    2) 对于老年抑郁症的预防建议,参见国家卫生计生委权威医学科普传播网络平台[OL]. [2017-02-01] http://www.baikemy.com/search/searchlist

    3) 根据日本国立社会保障人口问题研究所推算:2012年日本高龄化率24.1%,2024年将超过30%,2035年将达到33.4%(三人中有一人超过65岁),2061年将达到40%. [2013-03] http://www.ipss.go.jp/projects/j/index.asp

    4) 日本的公共参与社区规划活动被称为[まちづくり],起源于1960年,是居民组织为了保护社区环境而抵抗官方都市规划中不合理的部分而形成的系列活动,并逐步得到专业人员,非政府组织,政府机构等认同与合作。是通过社区中居住的民众角度对既有社区环境,进行可持续发展的策划过程。中文没有相对应的翻译,国际上经常直接采用其英文Machidukuli来表达。[OL][2017-01-30]http://www.geocities.jp/hirosasakiurbandesign/machidukuri.htm

    参考文献:

    [1] 数字来源:辛菲,刘晓芳,杨光等.中国空巢老人抑郁患病率的Meta分析[J].中国卫生统计,2014,31(2):278-281

    [2] 宋新明,郑晓瑛.人口营养-生活方式-健康转变和健康老龄化[C].市场与人口分析,2006(增刊2):25

    [3] 庄惟敏:对公共空间的重视亟待提高[J].广西城镇建设,2012(3):115

    [4] 张纯.城市社区形态与再生[D].东南大学出版社,2014:7

    [5] 東京大学高齢社会総合研究機構.東大がつくった高齢者社会の教科書[M].図書印刷株式会社,2014:3-38

    [6] 大月敏雄,住総研编著.近居-少子高齢社会の住まい[M].学芸出版社, 2014:11-22

    [7] 简・雅各布斯著,金衡山译.美国大城市的死于生.译林出版社[M],2006:21-34

    [8] [9]比尔希利儿著,杨滔,张拮,王晓京译.空间是机器[M].中国建筑工业出版社,2008:26-27,110-111

    1. Research Background andObjectives

    China has the world largest senior citizen population, the population of the aged above 60 years old has reached 222 million by the end of 2015. Among which, 84% of the population can take care of themselves in daily life. However, according to the data from "China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS)", nearly 40% of the senior citizen population clearly reveal the symptoms of depressive disorder. The seemingly physically “life-independent”senior citizen are not “healthy” in the real sense. Especially those who do not live with their children but one person or the old couple live alone, the proportion for them to suffer from depression goes to as high as 47% and 36%. Influenced by social, economic, psychological elements and the change of life-style after retirement, most senior citizen are lack of the experience of “health transition”. An effective method of preventing senile depression is to encourage the elderly to go out to take part in outdoor activities, to communicate more and to make more friends. From this point of view, it is obvious that enriching daily public life has an active and therapeutical effect on senile depression, among which the role that public space acts can not be overlooked. Therefore, it is extremely urgent to develop and optimize community public space that senior citizens live in. However, “public space” is chanllenged by more and more crises due to the lack of attention and understanding paid on public space at the present stage, the shortage of humanized and city vigor reflected designs, and the overmuch of standred vehicle oriented as well as one piece of architecture urban planning. On the other hand, the seemingly grand and beautiful landscape in public space is not convenient to use in real life. For the space that is “seldom used by audience”, we should first know well about the daily life behavior of senior citizen and then uptimize the public space design based on their psychological demand.

    This paper discusses the impacts and effects of optimizing public space based on the senior citizen’s everyday life latitude. Selecting three communities’ senior citizens to make question investigation to introspect the characteristics and deficiencies of social public space by illuminating and analysizing senior citizens’ daily public behavior and psychological demand, this paper hopes to provide effective reference for future community renovation and public space optimizaiton.

    通过趣味活动来促进老年人之间的交流(MZ社区居住的老年人)

    在公共空间自发组织的趣味活动可以促进老年人之间的交流(MD社区居住的老年人)

    2. Community Renovation Based on Senior Citizen Daily Public Life

    “Community Renovation” refers to the community form changes on the aspects of physical space and social space environment brought by community planning, which generates a positive change on the community vitality and sustainability. It is widely believed that community renovation is an important approach to promote urban vitality. With the highest aging rate and the approach of the aged society, restoration-typed regional renovation and sustainable strategy have become the dominant ideas for Japan to confront with the aged society. In 2013, Japanese Aged Society Comprehensive Research Institute began to come up with the topics of carrying out the long-living society regional renovation project, the regional assistance and care program, regional job arrangement plan, and regional community assistance and care living environment project. Among those topics, the living quality of the senior citizen and the living environment of their communities become the focuses of attention. Toshio Ootsuki, the professor of the University of Tokyo, once pointed out the questions of the importance of the ties of consanguinity between the elderly and their children, as well as the geographical relationship between the elderly and the community they live in. According to him, the elderly are not simply live in their own house, but in the regional society or the community. So in order to raise the elderly living quality from the root, to improve regional society autonomy management system to build a livable community environment is a way we must go.

    From the perspective of historical development, “public space and public life” was an integral part that can not be seperated. However, during the development of the industrialization and the modernization, the above viewpoint was overlooked. The result is, the initially dysfunctional urban environment turns into the focus of the urban planning, while the human oriented urban life is left forgotten. Jane・Jacobs warns people to rethink about the vehicle oriented city development starting from depicting public life in his book The Death and Life of American Cities published in 1961. For her point of view, modern function divison standpoint ruined the bonding strength between social life and urhan architectural complex. In 1966, Danish architect Jan Gehl’s article recorded the connection between public life and public space with the help of narrative pictures. Depicting more from the the perspective of humanity, he emphasized how space was used by using familiar scenes in everyday city life, using living examples to prove what are good for us and what are not. Finally, his research turned into the book Life Between Building published in 1971.

    The international world has paid more and more attention on the research of the senior citizen life quality and livable envrionment for the elderly. Especially the optimized design on community public space forms based on the elderly daily life latitude now is the hot issue. For future research, the correct direction should be the one that can break the strong routine in building design and add into scientific analysis instead of speculation. Constructing livable environment for the aged should pay attention to the research about the space with characteristics of human oriented self-organization process as well as the spatial environments accommodating people’s daily life which is also called micro urban space. Therefore, the research of the livable environment for the aged should be more diversified in future. Improving spiritual concern and enriching daily life of the aged should be done through strengthened social participation of the elderly, which are also the new task and direction of perfecting the aged space studies.

    道路湿滑是冬季里阻碍老年人开展室外活动的主要因素

     

    自发形成的交流空间

    3. The Questionnaire Analysis of Community Senior Citizens in Changchun

    Based on the selected three communities’ senior citizens’ everyday life, questionnaire combined withinvestigation, a study is carried out around the topics of the communities in which the aged live and the surrounding environment of the communities.

    The questionnaire survey is composed of four parts(shown in table 1 ). The interviewee are asked about their family members and what they usually do at group space and urban space. Questions made about group space are related to activities, satisfaction of people about the space, communication with others, etc. While questions related to urban space like space usage and people’s satisfaction degree, desired public facilities arrangement are open-ended.

    Table 1: Investigation Item

    Basic Parameters

    Age, Gender, Physical Condition, Economic Conditions

    Family Background

    Family Composition, Education Background, House Lot Conditions

    Group Space

    Outdoor Space Utilizaiton Condition, Your Satisfaction Rate of Outdoor Space, Communication with Neighbors

    Urban Space

    Nearby Park Utilization Rate and Your Satisfaction Rate, Opinion about Relevant Facilities

    Table 2: Qusetionnaire Recovery

    Object

    Release Number

    Recycled Number

    Effective Questionnaire

    Failed to Hand in

    Response Rate

    Effentive Rate

    Sum

    110

    85

    56

    11

    77%

    66%

    MDCommunity

    110

    89

    51

    13

    80%

    57%

    DH Community

    110

    98

    59

    15

    89%

    60%

    MZ Community

    130

    272

    166

    39

    82%

    61%

    The response rate can be seen from table 2. From the questionnaire survey we can tell that senior citizens in the communities go out every day, public life happened in the public space has become an indispensable part of the senior citizens’ daily life. In addition, since most of the elderly are familiar with others in the existed community, a random walk will lead them to a conversation. While for a newly-built community, the communication between the aged can be set up by fun activities like playing Chinese chess or poker. What’s more, for cold place like Chuangchun, low temperature can not stop senior citizens from going out to join the public life, what they concern most is the slip resistant design of the outdoor space. Also, the elderly attach great appraisal to place with many trees or circled space (square). Furthermore, though the existed community is built long ago, the senior citizens believe they get autonomy in their living environment, so it is easy for them to have a sense of belonging and to feel comfortable and ease. Making use of these psychological factors, enhancing public life quality by improving public space conditions will help to essentially lift the life quality of the aged.

    4. Conclusion and Expectation

    From Jan Gehl’s standpoint about the relation of outdoor activeities and public space, we can conclude that lack of outdoor space, only minimal necessary activities would take place. When the space quality is raised, the physical condition is good, the quality of outdoor activities will upgrade accordingly and the activity time tends to last longer. Therefore, good physical condition is a requirement to keep senior citizens staying outside longer. On the other hand, according to Jane・Jacobs, the renovation of physical space is only the refurbishment of the appearance, the poor of the space status is only changed from one place to another, the problem remained unsolved from the root. Thus required the renovation and design of communities based on the psychological demands of the elderly. Since the aged psychologically require differently from existed and newly-built communities, space design should take “behavioral observation” and “real site space type”of the elderly into consideration, understanding and grasping the effects these factors had on public space design. The above stanpoint will provide a solid theoretical basis for community renovation.

    1. The source of the number: Xin Fei,etc. China Empty-nest Elderly Depression Rate Meta Analysis. Chinese Journal of Health Statistics. 2014,31(2):pp278-281

    2. Please visit national health and family planning commission medical science network platform:http://www.baikemy.com/search/searchlist

    3.Zhuang Weimin: More Attention Need to be Put on Public Space. Urban Construction in Guangxi, 2012(3):p115

    4.Zhang Chun. Urban Community Form and Renovation. Southeast University Press, 2014,p7

    5.According to Japan Social Security Study on Population Problem: the aging rate in Japan in 2012 is 24.1%, in 2024 it will be higher than 30%, by the end of the year 2035, it will be 33.4% (which means every three people, there will be one more than 65 years old), in 2061, it will be 40%.http://www.ipss.go.jp/projects/j/index.asp

    6. Machidukuli http://www.geocities.jp/hirosasakiurbandesign/machidukuri.htm

    7. A textbook published by Aged Society Comprehensive Research Institute of the University of Tyoko, Japan Joint-stock Company, 2014,pp3-38

    8. Toshio Ootsuki. The Living Situation in Aged Society. Xueyun Press,2014, pp11-22

    9. Jane・Jacobs Compiled, Jing Hengshan Translated. The Death and Life of American Cities. Yilin Press, 2006: p21-34

    10. Bill Hillyer Compiled. Yang Tao, etc. Translated. Time is Machine. China Architecture & Building Press. 2008:pp26-27,pp110-111

    11. Please refer to the former theoretical references

     

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