"Park City"—Construction Strategy of Urban Green Space
吴明豪 王博娅 刘志成 *
WU Minghao, WANG Boya, LIU Zhicheng
吴明豪 / 1992 年 / 男 / 河南孟州人 / 北京林业大学在读博士研究生 / 研究方向为风景园林规划设计与理论（北京 100083）
WU Minghao, born in1992 in Henan Mengzhou, is a doctoral student in Beijing Forestry University, his research focuses on Landscape Architecture Design and Theory（Beijing 100083）
刘志成 / 1964 年 / 男 / 北京林业大学园林学院副院长、教授、博士生导师 / 研究方向为风景园林规划设计与理论（北京 100083）
通信作者邮箱（Corresponding author Email）:firstname.lastname@example.org
LIU Zhicheng, born in 1964,Deputy Dean,Professor, Doctoral Supervisor of College of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, his research focuses on: Landscape Architecture Planning and Theory(Beijing 100083)
Abstract: Park city is a new development concept of the new era. It fully embodies the development thought of "people-centered" of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and reflects the people-centered development idea. This paper reviews the development of the theory and research of urban planning and landscape architecture, and argues that the process of park city construction needs to respect natural law and embody Chinese culture. The construction of urban green space should consider ecological and cultural aspects and provide a sustainable, high-quality urban green space for people.
Key words: park city; planning theory; green space
2018年2月，习近平总书记视察天府新区时强调:“天府新区一定要规划 好建设好，特别是要突出公园城市特点，把生态价值考虑进去，努力打造新的 增长极，建设内陆开放经济高地。”习近平总书记提出的“公园城市”理念，充分体现了中央对城市建设的高度重视，即把城市建设成为人与人、人与自然和谐共处的美丽家园的奋斗目标。
从18世纪中叶开始，在以英国为代表的西方资本主义国家的城市建设中，公园建设已成为城市建筑的重要组成部分，并开始影响城市空间布局。在英 国，1820～1840年，是私家花园从为私人服务到为公众服务迅速转变的阶段。 大量的私家园林被改造成城市公园，公众、平等和关怀等理念融入园林规划中。随着城市公园规模和数量的增加，公园群形成，进而开始影响城市发展。 就规划角度而言，具有代表性的案例是纳什和莱普顿合作的伦敦摄政区域规 划，包括摄政公园（The Regent Park）、摄政大街（Regent Street）和圣• 詹姆斯公园（St James’s Park）、格林公园（Green Park）等所形成的城市开放空间系统（图1），深刻地影响了伦敦的发展，并一直保留和延续，发 展成为今日伦敦市中心一个庞大的公园系统[1~2]。同时代，Baron Georges- Eugène Haussmann对巴黎进行了全面改造，拓宽城市街道、建设林荫大道系统、重建沿街建筑等。同时，在奥斯曼的领导下，工程师和风景园林师 Jean-Charles Christophe Alphand以及园艺师Barillet-Deschanips共同发展了巴黎的城市公园群。当时，公园是城市中最美丽的场所，如一颗颗绿色珍珠，穿插于城市内部，为市民提供了理想的户外休闲空间，促进了城市的发展（图2）。
1898年Ebenezer Howard在《明天：一条引向真正改革的和平道路》（Tomorrow: a Peaceful Path towards Real Reform）一书中提出了“田园城市”的理论。田园城市是一个相对完整的城市规划理念，并对城市与景观的关系进行了清晰的构想，旨在构建一个城乡结合、环境优美的理想栖居城市。它将城市的基本建构单元与绿色空间相组合，将社会、经济、生态承载要 素等作为城市规划因子进行整体规划，使自然、田野与城市相互融合。“田园 城市”主要致力于改善城市的环境卫生状况，绿色空间的建设开始从自发走向自觉，标志着城市绿色空间的建设进入了理性发展阶段。
自20世纪初开始，城市环境建设相关理论呈多样化发展态势，城市绿色空 间的研究与实践因国家和地区而异，呈现为个性发展阶段。这一阶段前期，人们主要从功能的角度改造城市。例如，Le Corbusier 提出的“光辉城市（Ville Radieuse）”，主张用全新的规划思想改造城市，设想在城市里建设高层建筑、现代交通网和大片绿地，为人类创造充满阳光的现代化生活环境。Frank Lloyd Wright在1935年发表的《广亩城市：一个新的社区规划》 Broadacre City: A New Community Plan强调城市中的人的个性，反对集体主义。他的社会思想的物质载体是“广亩城市”。他相信电话和小汽车的力量，认为大都市将死亡，美国人将走向乡村，与郊野融为一体。
图 1 伦敦摄政公园群（图片来源 ：参考文献 ）
Figure 1 Regent Park Group in London (Source: Reference )
图 2 巴黎中心区城市肌理及绿地
Figure 2 Urban Texture and Green Space in Central Paris
1980年以后,人们开始从生态的角度研究城市发展，注重可持续发展，城市绿色空间构建问题受到广泛的关注。第二次世界大战后重建时期的以破坏环境为代价的乐观主义人类发展模式被彻底打破，保护环境从一般的社会呼吁逐步成为城市规划界的思想共识和一种操作模式。西方各国相继在城市规划中增加了环境保护规划部分，对城市建设项目要求进行环境影响评估。1976年人居大会（Habitat）首次在全球范围内提出了“人居环境（Human Settlement）”的概念。到20世纪80年代，人们开始从生态的角度研究城市发展，注重可持续发展。M. Breheny的《可持续发展与城市形态》（Sustainable Development and Urban Form）； A. Bloowers的《为可持续发展的环境而规划》；Charles Jencks等人合写的《紧凑城市：一种可持续的城市形态》（The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form）等规划理论也做出了回应。同时，“低碳城市”“共生城市”“景观都市主义”等新的城市可持续发展模式应运而生，国内也提出了“山水城市”“生态园林城市” 等概念。
“公园城市”建设的核心是构建新时代的“人间天堂”，需要建立城市与自然、城市与人、人与自然环境三者之间的理想关系，使城市与其自然环境成为一个有机的整体，为人们提供美好栖居的生活空间。“公园城市”的建设必须与区域自然生态系统保护高度融合。“城市建设要以自然为美，要把好山、 好水、好风光融入城市里面，要使城市内部的水系、绿地和城市外围的河流、森林、耕地等形成完整的生态网络体系”。尊重自然，按照山、水、林、田、湖、草是一个生命共同体的理念统筹和构建系统完整、城乡协调的生态网络体系。以城市绿色空间为载体，识别城市周边及内部的山水、林地、耕地等 绿色空间，构建合理的城市绿色空间格局和结构。大力开展生态修复，恢复和重建城市自然生态系统的自组织、自调控和自修复能力，充分发挥城市绿色空间在城市生态系统中的功能和作用。
“公园城市”建设的核心是人的需求，城市绿色空间的建设要与民生统一 协调。“公园城市”建设就是为人们提供绿色共享、品质优良、和谐宜居的城市生活环境。当下城市公园为公众提供了休闲娱乐和社交的场所，增加公众户外活动和亲近自然的机会。源于工业革命的公园作为改良社会的工具，为城市居民提供了一个“世外桃源”，而当代公园不再是城市中孤闭的“绿洲”，而是开放的城市空间，是塑造城市形态的重要媒介和促进社会生活的主要载体。 因此，城市绿色空间的构建要从为城市居民服务的角度出发，提高绿地的开放性、可达性和亲民性，协调城市建设的各个方面， 传承地域文化，塑造场所精神，提供具有归属感和认同感的场所；激励动态更新，保持城市活力，提供新奇独特的城市空间，实现城市和自然高度和谐统一的空间体系。
图 3 城市绿色空间构成
Figure 3 Urban Green Space Structure
In February 2018, when President Xi Jinping visited Tianfu New Area, he stressed that it is necessary to properly plan and construct Tianfu New Area, especially to consider the characteristics of “Park City". On the basis of ecological value, efforts should be made to create new growth poles and build open inland economic center. President Xi Jinping’s idea of " Park City" fully reflects the central government's focus on urban construction and the goal of making urban construction a beautiful homeland where people live in harmony with each other and with nature.
There is no doubt that great achievements have been made in China's urbanization in recent decades. At the same time, we should also realize that the rapid development has also brought about a large number of ecological and environmental problems, which is an obvious short board and has always been a matter of public concern: The rapid growth of urban scale has resulted in the encroachment of ecological space, the destruction of natural landscape patterns and historical features of the city, and the loss of regional features. Therefore, we need to sum up the historical experience and learn the merits of China and other countries in the process of urban construction in order to continuously improve the theoretical system of modern urban construction in China and serve the construction and development of China, finally enabling people to live in "Park City" and meeting people’s growing demand for a better life.
1 Rule of City Construction-Respecting Natural Law and Embodying Chinese Culture
Reviewing history we find that the construction of traditional Chinese cities and settlements has paid great attention to the coordination of human and nature. In the history of China, there are numerous construction cases that harmonize with to the natural characteristics. For example, Hangzhou, known as "paradise on earth", has been well suited to the natural landscape of Qiantang River, West Lake and surrounding mountains throughout dynasties. By balancing the relationship among mountains, river and cities, the development and construction of the city has well complied with the natural law and built a landscape city full of regional cultural temperament, which embodies the idea of "harmony between man and nature" in ancient China.
The construction of "Park City" requires the combination of natural features and cultural temperament. Natural features include geological features, climatic and hydrological features and vegetation features, which are the most basic natural attributes of a city. The construction method of the city reflects natural features of the urban area. In line with the natural law, living in harmony with the natural environment is the cornerstone of the healthy development of the city. Cultural temperament is a political, economic and cultural environment formed over a long time on the basis of natural environment, which is the basic attribute of a city. The scenic spots, historical sites and folk customs in the city constitute the city's regional culture, which is also a necessary method to highlight its regional culture, shape its charm and improve its livability.
From this, the natural law and human care are the guiding principles for the construction of the "Park City", with the focus on "the natural law" and cultural temperament of a stable urban ecosystem guided by adaption to nature. Based on the needs of people and characterized by "human care", it constructs a city space system with rich culture.
2 The Theoretical Basis for the Construction of "Park City"—To Study the Achievements of Sages and Explore the Construction Idea
"Park City" vividly describes the ideal urban environment, which is also the overall requirement for the quality of urban outdoor space with green space as the principal part. Although "Park city" is a brand-new landmark concept, its proposal is based on a large number of theories. Researchers have been studying and discussing the way to construct the ideal green space about one hundred years, with explorations based on various perspectives.
Since the middle of the 18th century, park construction has become an important part of urban architecture in the urban construction of western capitalist countries represented by Britain and has begun to influence the urban spatial layout. In Britain, between 1820 and 1840, the private garden changed rapidly from serving the private to serving the public. A large number of private gardens have been transformed into urban parks, with concepts such as public, equality and care considered in the garden planning. The increase in the size and number of urban parks has contributed to the creation of park groups, thus beginning to influence the development of the city. From the aspect of planning, one representative case is the London regent area jointly planned by Nash and Lipton, including the urban open space system formed by Regent park, Regent Street, St James's Park and Green Park (figure 1), which has profoundly affected London's development and has been preserved to develop into a huge park system in the center of London today. [1~2] At the same time, Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann carried out a comprehensive transformation of Paris. He widened the city streets, built the avenue system, and rebuilt the buildings along the street, etc. At the same time, under the leadership of Osman, engineers and landscape architect Jean - Charles Alfan and horticulturist Barillet-Deschanips have continued to develop Paris' urban parks. Parks were the most beautiful places in the city at that time. They were like green pearls that spread throughout the city, providing ideal outdoor leisure space for city residents and promoting the development of the city (figure 2).
In 1898, Ebenezer Howard put forward the theory of "garden city" in his book " Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path towards Real Reform". Garden city is a relatively complete urban planning concept, which has a clear conception of the relationship between cities and landscape. It aims to build an ideal residential city with a beautiful environment and a combination of urban and rural areas. It combines the basic construction unit of the city with the green space, and takes the social, economic and ecological load factors as urban planning factors to carry out overall planning, balancing the relationship between nature, fields and cities. "Garden City" is typically devoted to improving the city's environmental sanitation. The construction of green space began to change from spontaneous ones to conscious activities, indicating that the construction of urban green space has entered a rational development stage.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, there have been various theories related to urban environmental construction. The research and practice of urban green space is characterized by different features in different countries and region. At the beginning of this stage, people transformed the city mainly from the perspective of function. For example, Le Corbusier's "Ville Radieuse" advocated transforming cities with new planning ideas. It envisaged the construction of high-rise buildings, modern transportation networks and large green space in cities to create a pleasant modern living environment for human beings. Frank Lloyd Wright's " Broadacre City: A New Community Plan" published in 1935 emphasized the individuality of people in the city and opposed collectivism. His social concept was based on the practice of "Broadacre City". He believed in the power of telephones and cars and that the metropolis would die and that Americans would go to the countryside and lived with the countryside.
In the 20th century, there were ten major pollution incidents that shook the world. Human beings were facing the severe challenge of environmental problems, and began to generally recognize the deterioration of ecological conditions. Under this background, planners began to seek to establish a dynamic, harmonious city which could meet people’s life demands under the ecological principle. During this period, McHarg advocated ecology as the scientific basis for landscape design and regional planning. Through a series of lectures and works, he explained the idea and method of suitability analysis, clearly combining ecology with planning and design.
Since 1980, people have begun to study urban development from the perspective of ecology, paying attention to sustainable development, and the construction of urban green space has aroused wide concern. In the reconstruction period after World War II, the optimistic human development model at the cost of destroying the environment was completely broken, and environmental protection has gradually become an ideological consensus and an operational model in urban planning circles from the general social appeal. Western countries have added the environmental protection plan part to their urban plan one after another, and have also requested environmental impact assessment for urban construction projects. The concept of " Human Settlement" was first proposed at the Habitat Conference in 1976 on a global scale. By the 1980s, people began to study urban development from the perspective of ecology, focusing on sustainable development. M. Breheny's " Sustainable Development and Urban Form"; A. Bloowers's " Planning for the Environment of Sustainable Development"; Charles Jencks together with other authors wrote “The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form” At the same time, under this background, new urban sustainable development models such as "low carbon city", "symbiocity" and "landscape urbanism" have been set up, and concepts such as "landscape city" and " ecological garden city" have also been put forward in China.
In summary, the construction of green space is an important part of urban ecological construction and sustainable development, and it has always been the center of contemporary urban construction theory and practice. The practice of urban green space in various countries in the world can not only improve the lack of natural green space, but also provide a good development method for the decreasing construction of human nature space that can offer consolation. It will inevitably become the theoretical basis for the construction of "Park City" and provide a strong theoretical support for the study of the construction strategy of " Park City" in China.
3 "Park City"—Construction Strategy of Urban Green Space
3.1 Discovering and Improving Scientific Natural System
The core of the construction of "Park City" is to build a "paradise on earth" in the new era, which requires to establish an ideal relationship among city and nature, city and man, and man and natural environment, so as to make the city and its natural environment an organic whole, thus providing people with a good living space. The construction of "Park City" must be highly integrated with the protection of regional natural ecosystems. "Urban construction should be based on nature. We must integrate nice hills, clean water and wonderful scenery into the city. We must form a complete ecological network system that consists of water branches, green space of internal city and rivers, forests and cultivated fields of external city." . Urban construction also needs to respect nature, in accordance with the idea that landscape, forest, lake and grass is a community of life, to build an ecosystem system that is complete and coordinated in urban and rural areas. Based on the urban green space, we should identify the green space around and inside the city, such as landscape, forest land and cultivated fields, and construct a reasonable urban green space pattern and structure. We should also vigorously carry out ecological restoration activities to restore and rebuild the self-organization, self-regulation and self-restoration capability of the urban natural ecosystem  and give full play to the function and role of urban green space in the urban ecosystem.
3.2 Protecting and Constructing Ideal Human Places
The core of the construction of "Park City" is people's needs, and the construction of urban green space should be coordinated with people's livelihood. The purpose of building a "Park City" is to provide people with a living environment of green sharing, good quality, harmony and livability. At present, the city park provides a place for the public to relax, entertain and socialize, increasing the public's opportunities for outdoor activities and getting close to nature. Park, as a tool for improving society, has provided a" paradise" for urban residents since the industrial revolution, while contemporary park is no longer an " oasis" of isolation in the city, but an open urban space, an important medium for shaping the city's outlook and promoting social life. Therefore, the construction of urban green space must aim at serving urban residents. In urban construction, we must improve the openness, accessibility and affinity of green space, coordinate all aspects of urban construction, inherit regional culture, shape the spirit of place, and provide a place with a sense of belonging and identity. At the same time, we also need to encourage the dynamic renewal of the city, maintain its vitality, provide novel and unique urban space and realize a highly harmonious and unified space system between the city and nature.
3.3 Establishing the Green Space Structure of the City
3.3.1 Reasonable Structure and Arrangement
The construction of urban green space should guide the healthy development of the city with a reasonable and sound structure, break through the traditional pattern of " building first and filling in the blanks with green space", give priority to urban green space, integrate the city into the green environment, and realize the transformation from "building parks in cities" to " building cities in parks". In the process of urban construction, in order to control the scale and development intensity of urban and rural construction land, we need to limit the uncontrolled development of cities by delineating urban growth boundaries and ecological red lines. We need to define the important green nodes of the city by the nodes such as nature reserves, scenic spots and historical and cultural resources, and then connect the important nodes of the city and the different functional groups through the construction of different linear green spaces such as green net and green corridors, so as to provide people with leisure, recreation, fitness and biological migration, and finally to form a complete urban green space network. At the same time, the construction of urban green space should also realize the equalization of basic services and the allocation of grade and classification, build a city green space system with standard quantity, balanced distribution, perfect functions and excellent quality, and strive to let every citizen enjoy the fruits of ecological landscape construction fairly.
3.3.2 Proper Quantity and Area
In the process of rapid urbanization, if we want to make good use of urban green space, we must have a certain amount and area as support. After years of practice around the country, practice has proved that the most intelligent approach is to expand the green space on the basis of protecting the existing achievements of urban landscaping construction. One is the horizontal expansion. It is mainly to carry out ecological restoration, repair the polluted and abandoned sites and use them to build green space. Next, on the basis of shantytowns reconstruction, old city reconstruction, demolition and demolishing squatter buildings, it is necessary to turn every gap to green, restore green after demolition, add green to the disuse, and renew existing green plants. The second is the vertical expansion, that is, the comprehensive promotion of three-dimensional greening, including greening and beautification of roofs, walls, bridges, porches, bridges and culverts, and slopes .
3.3.3 Favorable Quality
In addition, in the process of constructing the urban green space, we should fully find out the urban characteristics such as special topography, native plants, folk customs and so on. At the same time, it is also necessary to find out the characteristic genes such as historical space and city memory accumulated in the long-term development and construction of the city, improve the cultural taste and connotation of the park, and reflect the regional characteristics, national characteristics and the style of the era. Meanwhile, we should also strengthen the specialized and delicate management and protection of green space to improve the landscape effect and ecological effect. According to the principle of appreciation, accessibility, and availability, the park green space and affiliated green space will be upgraded. For example, we can carry out park-based renovation of urban commercial areas, stadiums, stations and docks to provide more green public activity spaces with more beautiful environment for citizens.
3.3.4 Improved Functions and Benefits
Urban green space can improve the urban environment and alleviate the urban heat island effect. Through urban double repair (ecological repair and urban repair), the " urban disease" can be alleviated and managed, and the living environment can be improved. We can also identify areas with serious ecological problems by conducting ecological environmental assessment of cities, and implement comprehensive restoration of mountains, water, abandoned lands and urban green space systems with the concept of re-naturalization, creating more and more public spaces, which can enhance the cohesion and vitality of cities. At the same time, parks as the core component of urban green space, is not only an important place for the public to visit, rest, entertainment, fitness, make friends, ease their emotions and relieve pressure, but also a public platform for the government and social organizations to hold relevant cultural and educational activities, as well as a major emergency shelter for all kinds of urban disasters. It is also an indispensable " Third Space" for ordinary people's daily life, with the functions of city sponge, disaster prevention and avoidance, safety protection, air pollution prevention and control, energy conservation and emission reduction, and green life promotion. Therefore, we should strengthen the management and maintenance of the park so as to enhance the service function of the park and maximize its benefits (figure 3).
3.4 Building a Green Synthesis with Multiple Values
The contemporary urban green space is not only a single urban green space, but also a change from a single function to comprehensive functions, and it is no longer in opposition to the city, but tends to merge . The park has many functions, including ecology, landscape, recreation, culture, science and education, disaster prevention, and even links with catering, commerce, entertainment and other industries. From the perspective of urban strategy, the urban green space with urban parks as its main content has become the urban green synthesis , Various kinds of planning and construction have flexible functions of promoting regional development and bearing regional development. For instance, it can promote land appreciation around the green space and increase the attractiveness of cities in terms of commerce and residence, and has become an important engine for promoting regional economic, social and cultural development. Therefore, in the construction of urban green space, we need to improve the diversification of product supply, adapt to and guide all kinds of urban life, and achieve comprehensive benefits such as improvement of living environment, sharing of public resources, improvement of living quality, and good governance of social harmony.
"Park City" embodies the new development concept of the new era. It is the implementation of the "people-centered" development thought, and the concrete practice of people's city for the people. As the carrier of park city construction, urban green space is an important support for park city construction. As the core content of park city construction, urban green space construction is an important support for leading the new development model of park city in China. In the new era, the construction of urban green space should start from both ecological and cultural aspects, conform to the natural order and meet the needs of people with a sustainable and high-quality urban green space system, and truly realize "the whole city is a big park, and people walk in the city like wondering in their own gardens".
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（整理 ：赵迪 译 ：戴晨峪）