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    “公园城市”——城市绿色空间的构建策略
    2019-07-19  点击:[]

    公园城市”——城市绿色空间的构建策略

    "Park City"—Construction Strategy of Urban Green Space

     

    吴明豪 王博娅 刘志成 *

    WU Minghao, WANG Boya, LIU Zhicheng

     

    吴明豪 / 1992 / / 河南孟州人 / 北京林业大学在读博士研究生 / 研究方向为风景园林规划设计与理论(北京 100083

    WU Minghao, born in1992 in Henan Mengzhou, is a doctoral student in Beijing Forestry University, his research focuses on Landscape Architecture Design and TheoryBeijing 100083

     

    刘志成 / 1964 / / 北京林业大学园林学院副院长、教授、博士生导师 / 研究方向为风景园林规划设计与理论(北京 100083

    通信作者邮箱(Corresponding author Email:780256337@qq.com

    LIU Zhicheng, born in 1964,Deputy Dean,Professor, Doctoral Supervisor of College of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, his research focuses on: Landscape Architecture Planning and Theory(Beijing 100083)

     


    摘要:公园城市是新时代全新发展理念的体现,充分体现了习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想中以人民为中心的基本方略和构建人与自然和谐共生的绿色发展新理念。本文梳理了近现代以来城市与风景园林规划理论和研究的发展脉络,提出了公园城市建设需要顺自然之理、营人文之韵,城市绿色空间构建应该从生态和文化两方面考虑,建设尊重自然,满足人的需求的可持续、高品质的城市绿色空间体系。

    关键词:公园城市;规划理论;绿色空间

    Abstract: Park city is a new development concept of the new era. It fully embodies the development thought of "people-centered" of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and reflects the people-centered development idea. This paper reviews the development of the theory and research of urban planning and landscape architecture, and argues that the process of park city construction needs to respect natural law and embody Chinese culture. The construction of urban green space should consider ecological and cultural aspects and provide a sustainable, high-quality urban green space for people.

    Key words: park city; planning theory; green space

     

     

    20182月,习近平总书记视察天府新区时强调:天府新区一定要规划 好建设好,特别是要突出公园城市特点,把生态价值考虑进去,努力打造新的 增长极,建设内陆开放经济高地。习近平总书记提出的公园城市理念,充分体现了中央对城市建设的高度重视,即把城市建设成为人与人、人与自然和谐共处的美丽家园的奋斗目标。

    毋庸置疑,近几十年来,我国城市化发展过程取得了巨大成就。同时,我们也应认识到,我们在快速发展中也累积了大量生态环境问题,成为明显的短板,成为人民群众反映强烈的突出问题:城市规模迅猛增长,生态空间被侵占,自然山水格局和城市历史风貌被破坏,区域地域特征丧失,城市建设面临极大的挑战。因此,面对未来,我们亟需总结历史经验,汲取中国及世界各国城市构建历程中的营养,不断提升、完善我国现代城市建设理论体系,为国家的建设与发展服务,让人们生活在公园城市中,满足人民日益增长的美好生活需要。

    公园城市建设理念是对城市规划与建设总体方向的思考与要求,强调了城市的绿色空间建设要坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,需要专业工作者针对城市建设问题与发展需要,通过深入研究,提出区域绿色空间的体系优化和品质提高的科学、可行的发展策略。

    面对未来,我们亟需正确认识城市的基本属性,总结历史经验,汲取中国及世界各国城市构建历程中的营养,不断提升、完善我国现代城市建设理论体系,以全新的视角界定城市绿色空间作为城市生态体系和公共服务体系的生态质量与服务品质,达到完善城市生态格局、建立城乡一体的生态系统;塑造城市特征、提升城市品质等目标要求,把城市建设成为人与人、人与自然、城市与自然和谐共处的美丽家园,让人们生活在公园城市中,满足人们追寻美好生活的愿望。

     

    1城市的永恒之道——顺自然之理、营人文之韵

    回顾历史,中国传统城市与聚落的营建十分注重协调人与自然的关系,与自然相呼应,顺应自然的特征,能够载入史册的案例举不胜举。例如,被誉为人间天堂的杭州,历朝历代的营建过程都很好地契合了钱塘江、西湖及周边山体为主的自然山水格局,山、水、城共为一体,城市的发展建设非常好地 顺应了自然规律,营建了极富地域人文气质的山水城市,体现了我国古代天人合一的理念。

    公园城市的构建需要包含自然特征与人文气质两方面的内容。自然特征包括地质特征、气候水文特征以及植被特征等,是城市最基本的自然属性。城市的构建方式是城市地域自然特征的体现,符合、顺应自然之理,与自然环境良好的互动是城市健康发展的基石。人文气质则是在自然环境基础上,长时间形成的政治、经济和文化等的人文环境,是城市的基本属性。城市中的名胜古迹、民俗风情都是城市地域文化的具体体现,是彰显城市地域文化,塑造城市魅力,营建宜居城市的必由之路。

    由此看来,自然之理与人文之韵是公园城市构建之道,其着眼点是自然之理,以顺应自然为导向,构建稳定的城市生态系统;而落脚点是人的需求,以人文之韵为特征,构建内涵丰富的城市空间系统。


    2“公园城市构建的理论基础——寻先贤之足迹,探构建之理想

    公园城市是对理想城市环境的形象表达,是对以绿色空间为主体的城市户外空间品质的总体要求。虽然公园城市是一个全新的里程碑式的理念,但它的提出并不是无本之木,人们对理想的绿色空间的构建途径的研究与 探讨已有百余年的历程,这些探究视角各异,丰富多样。

    18世纪中叶开始,在以英国为代表的西方资本主义国家的城市建设中,公园建设已成为城市建筑的重要组成部分,并开始影响城市空间布局。在英 国,18201840年,是私家花园从为私人服务到为公众服务迅速转变的阶段。 大量的私家园林被改造成城市公园,公众、平等和关怀等理念融入园林规划中。随着城市公园规模和数量的增加,公园群形成,进而开始影响城市发展。 就规划角度而言,具有代表性的案例是纳什和莱普顿合作的伦敦摄政区域规 划,包括摄政公园(The Regent Park)、摄政大街(Regent Street)和圣詹姆斯公园(St James’s Park)、格林公园(Green Park)等所形成的城市开放空间系统(图1),深刻地影响了伦敦的发展,并一直保留和延续,发 展成为今日伦敦市中心一个庞大的公园系统[1~2]。同时代,Baron Georges- Eugène Haussmann对巴黎进行了全面改造,拓宽城市街道、建设林荫大道系统、重建沿街建筑等。同时,在奥斯曼的领导下,工程师和风景园林师 Jean-Charles Christophe Alphand以及园艺师Barillet-Deschanips共同发展了巴黎的城市公园群。当时,公园是城市中最美丽的场所,如一颗颗绿色珍珠,穿插于城市内部,为市民提供了理想的户外休闲空间,促进了城市的发展(图2)。

    1898Ebenezer Howard在《明天:一条引向真正改革的和平道路》(Tomorrow: a Peaceful Path towards Real Reform)一书中提出了田园城市的理论[3]。田园城市是一个相对完整的城市规划理念,并对城市与景观的关系进行了清晰的构想,旨在构建一个城乡结合、环境优美的理想栖居城市。它将城市的基本建构单元与绿色空间相组合,将社会、经济、生态承载要 素等作为城市规划因子进行整体规划,使自然、田野与城市相互融合。田园 城市主要致力于改善城市的环境卫生状况,绿色空间的建设开始从自发走向自觉,标志着城市绿色空间的建设进入了理性发展阶段。

    20世纪初开始,城市环境建设相关理论呈多样化发展态势,城市绿色空 间的研究与实践因国家和地区而异,呈现为个性发展阶段。这一阶段前期,人们主要从功能的角度改造城市。例如,Le Corbusier 提出的光辉城市(Ville Radieuse,主张用全新的规划思想改造城市,设想在城市里建设高层建筑、现代交通网和大片绿地,为人类创造充满阳光的现代化生活环境。Frank Lloyd Wright1935年发表的《广亩城市:一个新的社区规划》 Broadacre City: A New Community Plan强调城市中的人的个性,反对集体主义。他的社会思想的物质载体是广亩城市。他相信电话和小汽车的力量,认为大都市将死亡,美国人将走向乡村,与郊野融为一体。

    20世纪出现了震惊世界的十大公害事件,环境问题向人类提出了严峻的挑战,也使人们开始普遍认识到生态条件的日益恶劣。在此背景下,规划工作者开始探索在生态学原则下建设动态的、协调的、又能够满足人们需求的城市。这一时期,lan McHarg提倡将生态学作为风景园林设计和区域规划的科学基础。他通过一系列的讲座和著作阐述了适宜性分析的思想和方法,清晰地将生态与规划设计联系起来。


     

    1 伦敦摄政公园群(图片来源 :参考文献 [2]

    Figure 1 Regent Park Group in London (Source: Reference [2])

     

     

     

    2 巴黎中心区城市肌理及绿地

    Figure 2 Urban Texture and Green Space in Central Paris




    1980年以后,人们开始从生态的角度研究城市发展,注重可持续发展,城市绿色空间构建问题受到广泛的关注。第二次世界大战后重建时期的以破坏环境为代价的乐观主义人类发展模式被彻底打破,保护环境从一般的社会呼吁逐步成为城市规划界的思想共识和一种操作模式。西方各国相继在城市规划中增加了环境保护规划部分,对城市建设项目要求进行环境影响评估。1976年人居大会(Habitat)首次在全球范围内提出了人居环境(Human Settlement的概念。到20世纪80年代,人们开始从生态的角度研究城市发展,注重可持续发展。M. Breheny的《可持续发展与城市形态》(Sustainable Development and Urban Form); A. Bloowers的《为可持续发展的环境而规划》;Charles Jencks等人合写的《紧凑城市:一种可持续的城市形态》(The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form)等规划理论也做出了回应。同时,低碳城市”“共生城市”“景观都市主义等新的城市可持续发展模式应运而生,国内也提出了山水城市”“生态园林城市等概念。

    综上所述,绿色空间的营建是城市生态建设与可持续发展的重要内容,也是一直以来当代城市建构理论与实践的核心内容。世界各国的城市绿色空间实践,在弥补天然绿地消退和不足的同时,也为被不断挤压的、可供寻求心灵归宿的人性空间构建提供了良好的发展路径,必然成为公园城市建设的理论基础,为我国公园城市建设策略研究提供了有力的理论支撑。

     

    3“公园城市”——城市绿色空间的构建策略

    3.1 发掘、完善科学的自然系统

    公园城市建设的核心是构建新时代的人间天堂,需要建立城市与自然、城市与人、人与自然环境三者之间的理想关系,使城市与其自然环境成为一个有机的整体,为人们提供美好栖居的生活空间。公园城市的建设必须与区域自然生态系统保护高度融合。城市建设要以自然为美,要把好山、 好水、好风光融入城市里面,要使城市内部的水系、绿地和城市外围的河流、森林、耕地等形成完整的生态网络体系[4]。尊重自然,按照山、水、林、田、湖、草是一个生命共同体的理念统筹和构建系统完整、城乡协调的生态网络体系。以城市绿色空间为载体,识别城市周边及内部的山水、林地、耕地等 绿色空间,构建合理的城市绿色空间格局和结构。大力开展生态修复,恢复和重建城市自然生态系统的自组织、自调控和自修复能力[5],充分发挥城市绿色空间在城市生态系统中的功能和作用。

    3.2 保护、构筑理想的人性场所

    公园城市建设的核心是人的需求,城市绿色空间的建设要与民生统一 协调。公园城市建设就是为人们提供绿色共享、品质优良、和谐宜居的城市生活环境。当下城市公园为公众提供了休闲娱乐和社交的场所,增加公众户外活动和亲近自然的机会。源于工业革命的公园作为改良社会的工具,为城市居民提供了一个世外桃源,而当代公园不再是城市中孤闭的绿洲,而是开放的城市空间,是塑造城市形态的重要媒介和促进社会生活的主要载体。 因此,城市绿色空间的构建要从为城市居民服务的角度出发,提高绿地的开放性、可达性和亲民性,协调城市建设的各个方面, 传承地域文化,塑造场所精神,提供具有归属感和认同感的场所;激励动态更新,保持城市活力,提供新奇独特的城市空间,实现城市和自然高度和谐统一的空间体系。

    3.3 建立城市的绿色空间结构

    3.3.1 合理的结构和布局

    城市绿色空间的构建要以合理、健全的方式来引导城市的健康发展。突破以往建设优先、绿地填空的传统模式,将城市绿色空间优先考虑,把城市融入绿色环境之中,实现从城市里建公园公园里建城市的转变[6]。在城市建设过程中,通过划定城市增长边界和生态红线,限制城市自由发展,控制城乡建设用地规模和开发强度。通过对自然保护区、风景名胜区、历史文化资源等重要节点的保护,划定出城市的重要绿色节点;通过绿色网络、绿色廊道等不同线型绿色空间的建设,连接城市重要节点和不同的功能组团等,供人休闲、游憩、健身和生物迁徙,最终形成结构完整的城市绿色空间网络。同时,城市绿色空间建设还应实行基本服务均等化和分级分类配置,构建数量达标、分布均衡、功能完备、品质优良的城市绿地体系,努力让每个老百姓都能平等享受生态园林建设成果。

    3.3.2 适当的数量和面积

    在快速城镇化进程中,城市绿色空间功能的发挥需要一定的数量和面积作为支撑。各地多年来的实践证明,最具智慧的做法就是在保护已有城市园林绿化建设成果的基础上,拓展绿色空间。一是横向的拓展,主要是实施生态修复,对被污染、被废弃的场地进行修复并用来建设绿地,其次是借棚户区改造、旧城改造、拆迁拆违等见缝插绿、拆违复绿、留白增绿、更新植绿;二是竖向的拓展,就是全面推广立体绿化,包括对屋顶、墙体、桥体、廊架、桥涵、边坡等进行绿化美化[7]

    3.3.3 良好的品质和质量

    此外,在城市绿色空间的构建过程中,应充分发掘利用特殊的地形地貌、乡土植物、民俗风情等城市特色要素,找准城市长期发展建设过程中积淀形成的富有特色的历史空间和城市文脉等特质基因,提高公园文化品位和内涵,体现地域特征、民族特色和时代风貌。同时,加强绿地专业化、精细化管养和保护,提升景观效果、生态功效等;按照可观赏、可进入、可享用的原则,对公园绿地、附属绿地等进行升级改造,如对城市商业区、体育场馆、车站码头等实施公园化更新,为市民提供数量更多、环境更美的绿色公共活动空间。

    3.3.4 完善的功能和效益

    城市绿色空间具有改善城市环境、缓解城市热岛效应等作用。通过城市双修(生态修复、城市修补)可以缓解和治理城市病,改善人居环境;通过对城市进行生态环境评估,找出生态问题突出的区域,用再自然化的理念,实施山体、水体、废弃地和城市绿地系统综合修复,创造更多的公共空间,可以提升城市凝聚力和活力。同时,公园作为城市绿色空间的核心组成部分,既是公众游览、休憩、娱乐、健身、交友、舒缓情绪、减缓压力的重要场地,也是政府、社会团体等举办相关文化教育活动的公共平台,还是各种城市灾害来临时的主要应急避险场所,是老百姓日常生活不可或缺的第三空间。具有城市海绵体功能、防灾避险功能、安全防护功能、大气污染防治功能、节能减排功能和助推绿色生活等功能,加强对公园管理和维护,可以提升公园的服务功能,使其发挥最大效益(图3)。

    3.4 打造具有复合价值的绿色综合体

    当代城市绿色空间已经不仅是单一的城市绿地属性,而是从单一功能向复合功能转变;与城市不再是对立的关系,而是趋于融合[8]。公园承担着生态、 景观、游憩、文化、科教、防灾等多种功能,甚至是与餐饮、商贸、娱乐等产业联系在一起。城市战略层面,以城市公园为主要内容的城市绿色空间已成为城市绿色综合体[9],其规划与建设呈现多样形态,具有促进和承载地区发展的弹性功能,例如,城市绿色空间能够促进绿色空间周边地块的土地增值,提高城市在商业与居住方面的吸引力,已是推动地区经济与社会文化发展的重要引擎。因此,城市绿色空间的构建,需要提高产品供给多样化,适应并引导各类都市生活,达到人居环境改善、公共资源共享、生活品质提升、社会和谐善治等综合效益。

     

    4结语

    公园城市是新时代全新发展理念的体现,是以人民为中心的发展思想的落实,是坚持人民城市为人民的具体实践。城市绿色空间作为公园城城市建设的载体,是公园城市建设的重要支撑。城市绿色空间建设作为公园城市建设中的核心内容,是引领我国公园城市发展新模式的重要支撑。在新时代思想的指引下,城市绿色空间构建应该从生态和文化两方面考虑,顺应自然秩序,满足人的需求,建设可持续、高品质的城市绿色空间体系,真正实现整个城市就是一个大公园,老百姓走出来就像在自己家里的花园一样

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    3 城市绿色空间构成

    Figure 3 Urban Green Space Structure

     


    In February 2018, when President Xi Jinping visited Tianfu New Area, he stressed that it is necessary to properly plan and construct Tianfu New Area, especially to consider the characteristics of “Park City". On the basis of ecological value, efforts should be made to create new growth poles and build open inland economic center. President Xi Jinping’s idea of " Park City" fully reflects the central government's focus on urban construction and the goal of making urban construction a beautiful homeland where people live in harmony with each other and with nature.

    There is no doubt that great achievements have been made in China's urbanization in recent decades. At the same time, we should also realize that the rapid development has also brought about a large number of ecological and environmental problems, which is an obvious short board and has always been a matter of public concern: The rapid growth of urban scale has resulted in the encroachment of ecological space, the destruction of natural landscape patterns and historical features of the city, and the loss of regional features. Therefore, we need to sum up the historical experience and learn the merits of China and other countries in the process of urban construction in order to continuously improve the theoretical system of modern urban construction in China and serve the construction and development of China, finally enabling people to live in "Park City" and meeting people’s growing demand for a better life.

    1 Rule of City Construction-Respecting Natural Law and Embodying Chinese Culture

    Reviewing history we find that the construction of traditional Chinese cities and settlements has paid great attention to the coordination of human and nature. In the history of China, there are numerous construction cases that harmonize with to the natural characteristics. For example, Hangzhou, known as "paradise on earth", has been well suited to the natural landscape of Qiantang River, West Lake and surrounding mountains throughout dynasties. By balancing the relationship among mountains, river and cities, the development and construction of the city has well complied with the natural law and built a landscape city full of regional cultural temperament, which embodies the idea of "harmony between man and nature" in ancient China.

    The construction of "Park City" requires the combination of natural features and cultural temperament. Natural features include geological features, climatic and hydrological features and vegetation features, which are the most basic natural attributes of a city. The construction method of the city reflects natural features of the urban area. In line with the natural law, living in harmony with the natural environment is the cornerstone of the healthy development of the city. Cultural temperament is a political, economic and cultural environment formed over a long time on the basis of natural environment, which is the basic attribute of a city. The scenic spots, historical sites and folk customs in the city constitute the city's regional culture, which is also a necessary method to highlight its regional culture, shape its charm and improve its livability.

    From this, the natural law and human care are the guiding principles for the construction of the "Park City", with the focus on "the natural law" and cultural temperament of a stable urban ecosystem guided by adaption to nature. Based on the needs of people and characterized by "human care", it constructs a city space system with rich culture.

    2 The Theoretical Basis for the Construction of "Park City"—To Study the Achievements of Sages and Explore the Construction Idea

    "Park City" vividly describes the ideal urban environment, which is also the overall requirement for the quality of urban outdoor space with green space as the principal part. Although "Park city" is a brand-new landmark concept, its proposal is based on a large number of theories. Researchers have been studying and discussing the way to construct the ideal green space about one hundred years, with explorations based on various perspectives.

    Since the middle of the 18th century, park construction has become an important part of urban architecture in the urban construction of western capitalist countries represented by Britain and has begun to influence the urban spatial layout. In Britain, between 1820 and 1840, the private garden changed rapidly from serving the private to serving the public. A large number of private gardens have been transformed into urban parks, with concepts such as public, equality and care considered in the garden planning. The increase in the size and number of urban parks has contributed to the creation of park groups, thus beginning to influence the development of the city. From the aspect of planning, one representative case is the London regent area jointly planned by Nash and Lipton, including the urban open space system formed by Regent park, Regent Street, St James's Park and Green Park (figure 1), which has profoundly affected London's development and has been preserved to develop into a huge park system in the center of London today. [1~2] At the same time, Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann carried out a comprehensive transformation of Paris. He widened the city streets, built the avenue system, and rebuilt the buildings along the street, etc. At the same time, under the leadership of Osman, engineers and landscape architect Jean - Charles Alfan and horticulturist Barillet-Deschanips have continued to develop Paris' urban parks. Parks were the most beautiful places in the city at that time. They were like green pearls that spread throughout the city, providing ideal outdoor leisure space for city residents and promoting the development of the city (figure 2).

    In 1898, Ebenezer Howard put forward the theory of "garden city" in his book " Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path towards Real Reform"[3]. Garden city is a relatively complete urban planning concept, which has a clear conception of the relationship between cities and landscape. It aims to build an ideal residential city with a beautiful environment and a combination of urban and rural areas. It combines the basic construction unit of the city with the green space, and takes the social, economic and ecological load factors as urban planning factors to carry out overall planning, balancing the relationship between nature, fields and cities. "Garden City" is typically devoted to improving the city's environmental sanitation. The construction of green space began to change from spontaneous ones to conscious activities, indicating that the construction of urban green space has entered a rational development stage.

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, there have been various theories related to urban environmental construction. The research and practice of urban green space is characterized by different features in different countries and region. At the beginning of this stage, people transformed the city mainly from the perspective of function. For example, Le Corbusier's "Ville Radieuse" advocated transforming cities with new planning ideas. It envisaged the construction of high-rise buildings, modern transportation networks and large green space in cities to create a pleasant modern living environment for human beings. Frank Lloyd Wright's " Broadacre City: A New Community Plan" published in 1935 emphasized the individuality of people in the city and opposed collectivism. His social concept was based on the practice of "Broadacre City". He believed in the power of telephones and cars and that the metropolis would die and that Americans would go to the countryside and lived with the countryside.

    In the 20th century, there were ten major pollution incidents that shook the world. Human beings were facing the severe challenge of environmental problems, and began to generally recognize the deterioration of ecological conditions. Under this background, planners began to seek to establish a dynamic, harmonious city which could meet people’s life demands under the ecological principle. During this period, McHarg advocated ecology as the scientific basis for landscape design and regional planning. Through a series of lectures and works, he explained the idea and method of suitability analysis, clearly combining ecology with planning and design.

    Since 1980, people have begun to study urban development from the perspective of ecology, paying attention to sustainable development, and the construction of urban green space has aroused wide concern. In the reconstruction period after World War II, the optimistic human development model at the cost of destroying the environment was completely broken, and environmental protection has gradually become an ideological consensus and an operational model in urban planning circles from the general social appeal. Western countries have added the environmental protection plan part to their urban plan one after another, and have also requested environmental impact assessment for urban construction projects. The concept of " Human Settlement" was first proposed at the Habitat Conference in 1976 on a global scale. By the 1980s, people began to study urban development from the perspective of ecology, focusing on sustainable development. M. Breheny's " Sustainable Development and Urban Form"; A. Bloowers's " Planning for the Environment of Sustainable Development"; Charles Jencks together with other authors wrote “The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form” At the same time, under this background, new urban sustainable development models such as "low carbon city", "symbiocity" and "landscape urbanism" have been set up, and concepts such as "landscape city" and " ecological garden city" have also been put forward in China.

    In summary, the construction of green space is an important part of urban ecological construction and sustainable development, and it has always been the center of contemporary urban construction theory and practice. The practice of urban green space in various countries in the world can not only improve the lack of natural green space, but also provide a good development method for the decreasing construction of human nature space that can offer consolation. It will inevitably become the theoretical basis for the construction of "Park City" and provide a strong theoretical support for the study of the construction strategy of " Park City" in China.

    3 "Park City"—Construction Strategy of Urban Green Space

    3.1 Discovering and Improving Scientific Natural System

    The core of the construction of "Park City" is to build a "paradise on earth" in the new era, which requires to establish an ideal relationship among city and nature, city and man, and man and natural environment, so as to make the city and its natural environment an organic whole, thus providing people with a good living space. The construction of "Park City" must be highly integrated with the protection of regional natural ecosystems. "Urban construction should be based on nature. We must integrate nice hills, clean water and wonderful scenery into the city. We must form a complete ecological network system that consists of water branches, green space of internal city and rivers, forests and cultivated fields of external city." [4]. Urban construction also needs to respect nature, in accordance with the idea that landscape, forest, lake and grass is a community of life, to build an ecosystem system that is complete and coordinated in urban and rural areas. Based on the urban green space, we should identify the green space around and inside the city, such as landscape, forest land and cultivated fields, and construct a reasonable urban green space pattern and structure. We should also vigorously carry out ecological restoration activities to restore and rebuild the self-organization, self-regulation and self-restoration capability of the urban natural ecosystem [5] and give full play to the function and role of urban green space in the urban ecosystem.

    3.2 Protecting and Constructing Ideal Human Places

    The core of the construction of "Park City" is people's needs, and the construction of urban green space should be coordinated with people's livelihood. The purpose of building a "Park City" is to provide people with a living environment of green sharing, good quality, harmony and livability. At present, the city park provides a place for the public to relax, entertain and socialize, increasing the public's opportunities for outdoor activities and getting close to nature. Park, as a tool for improving society, has provided a" paradise" for urban residents since the industrial revolution, while contemporary park is no longer an " oasis" of isolation in the city, but an open urban space, an important medium for shaping the city's outlook and promoting social life. Therefore, the construction of urban green space must aim at serving urban residents. In urban construction, we must improve the openness, accessibility and affinity of green space, coordinate all aspects of urban construction, inherit regional culture, shape the spirit of place, and provide a place with a sense of belonging and identity. At the same time, we also need to encourage the dynamic renewal of the city, maintain its vitality, provide novel and unique urban space and realize a highly harmonious and unified space system between the city and nature.

    3.3 Establishing the Green Space Structure of the City

    3.3.1 Reasonable Structure and Arrangement

    The construction of urban green space should guide the healthy development of the city with a reasonable and sound structure, break through the traditional pattern of " building first and filling in the blanks with green space", give priority to urban green space, integrate the city into the green environment, and realize the transformation from "building parks in cities" to " building cities in parks"[6]. In the process of urban construction, in order to control the scale and development intensity of urban and rural construction land, we need to limit the uncontrolled development of cities by delineating urban growth boundaries and ecological red lines. We need to define the important green nodes of the city by the nodes such as nature reserves, scenic spots and historical and cultural resources, and then connect the important nodes of the city and the different functional groups through the construction of different linear green spaces such as green net and green corridors, so as to provide people with leisure, recreation, fitness and biological migration, and finally to form a complete urban green space network. At the same time, the construction of urban green space should also realize the equalization of basic services and the allocation of grade and classification, build a city green space system with standard quantity, balanced distribution, perfect functions and excellent quality, and strive to let every citizen enjoy the fruits of ecological landscape construction fairly.

    3.3.2 Proper Quantity and Area

    In the process of rapid urbanization, if we want to make good use of urban green space, we must have a certain amount and area as support. After years of practice around the country, practice has proved that the most intelligent approach is to expand the green space on the basis of protecting the existing achievements of urban landscaping construction. One is the horizontal expansion. It is mainly to carry out ecological restoration, repair the polluted and abandoned sites and use them to build green space. Next, on the basis of shantytowns reconstruction, old city reconstruction, demolition and demolishing squatter buildings, it is necessary to turn every gap to green, restore green after demolition, add green to the disuse, and renew existing green plants. The second is the vertical expansion, that is, the comprehensive promotion of three-dimensional greening, including greening and beautification of roofs, walls, bridges, porches, bridges and culverts, and slopes [7].

    3.3.3 Favorable Quality

    In addition, in the process of constructing the urban green space, we should fully find out the urban characteristics such as special topography, native plants, folk customs and so on. At the same time, it is also necessary to find out the characteristic genes such as historical space and city memory accumulated in the long-term development and construction of the city, improve the cultural taste and connotation of the park, and reflect the regional characteristics, national characteristics and the style of the era. Meanwhile, we should also strengthen the specialized and delicate management and protection of green space to improve the landscape effect and ecological effect. According to the principle of appreciation, accessibility, and availability, the park green space and affiliated green space will be upgraded. For example, we can carry out park-based renovation of urban commercial areas, stadiums, stations and docks to provide more green public activity spaces with more beautiful environment for citizens.

    3.3.4 Improved Functions and Benefits

    Urban green space can improve the urban environment and alleviate the urban heat island effect. Through urban double repair (ecological repair and urban repair), the " urban disease" can be alleviated and managed, and the living environment can be improved. We can also identify areas with serious ecological problems by conducting ecological environmental assessment of cities, and implement comprehensive restoration of mountains, water, abandoned lands and urban green space systems with the concept of re-naturalization, creating more and more public spaces, which can enhance the cohesion and vitality of cities. At the same time, parks as the core component of urban green space, is not only an important place for the public to visit, rest, entertainment, fitness, make friends, ease their emotions and relieve pressure, but also a public platform for the government and social organizations to hold relevant cultural and educational activities, as well as a major emergency shelter for all kinds of urban disasters. It is also an indispensable " Third Space" for ordinary people's daily life, with the functions of city sponge, disaster prevention and avoidance, safety protection, air pollution prevention and control, energy conservation and emission reduction, and green life promotion. Therefore, we should strengthen the management and maintenance of the park so as to enhance the service function of the park and maximize its benefits (figure 3).

    3.4 Building a Green Synthesis with Multiple Values

    The contemporary urban green space is not only a single urban green space, but also a change from a single function to comprehensive functions, and it is no longer in opposition to the city, but tends to merge [8]. The park has many functions, including ecology, landscape, recreation, culture, science and education, disaster prevention, and even links with catering, commerce, entertainment and other industries. From the perspective of urban strategy, the urban green space with urban parks as its main content has become the urban green synthesis [9], Various kinds of planning and construction have flexible functions of promoting regional development and bearing regional development. For instance, it can promote land appreciation around the green space and increase the attractiveness of cities in terms of commerce and residence, and has become an important engine for promoting regional economic, social and cultural development. Therefore, in the construction of urban green space, we need to improve the diversification of product supply, adapt to and guide all kinds of urban life, and achieve comprehensive benefits such as improvement of living environment, sharing of public resources, improvement of living quality, and good governance of social harmony.

     

    4 Conclusion

    "Park City" embodies the new development concept of the new era. It is the implementation of the "people-centered" development thought, and the concrete practice of people's city for the people. As the carrier of park city construction, urban green space is an important support for park city construction. As the core content of park city construction, urban green space construction is an important support for leading the new development model of park city in China. In the new era, the construction of urban green space should start from both ecological and cultural aspects, conform to the natural order and meet the needs of people with a sustainable and high-quality urban green space system, and truly realize "the whole city is a big park, and people walk in the city like wondering in their own gardens".

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    ZHAO Jing. From Landscape Garden to Garden City: The Developments and Influences of Western Landscape Planning from Early Eighteenth Century to Mid-Nineteenth Century. [D]. Beijing Forestry University,2012:119-120.

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    Several Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on Further Strengthening the Management of Urban Planning and Construction.2016.

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    ZHANG ShaoliangZHANG LimingHOU Huping, etc. Review of Ecological Natural Restoration[J]. Arid Land Resources and Environment201731(1) 160-166.

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    Charles Waldheim. The Landscape Urbanism Reader[M].China Architecture Building Press,2011:10-11.

    [9] 郑曦 . 城市公园作为绿色综合体的发展特征与构建策略研究 [J]. 城市发展研 ,2013(6):25-29.

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    (整理 :赵迪 :戴晨峪)

     

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