Urban Streetscape Space Design in Park City
王洪成 杨宁 陈丽君
WANG Hongcheng，YANG Ning，CHEN Lijun
王洪成 / 1965 年生 / 男 / 吉林人 / 天津大学建筑学院教授、博士生导师 / 研究方向为风景园林理论与设计、低碳园林（天津 300072）
WANG Hongcheng, born in 1965 in Jilin Province professor, doctoral supervisor, School of Architecture, Tianjin University, his research focuses on landscape architecture theory and design, low-carbon landscape architecture (Tianjin 300072).
杨宁 / 1994 年生 / 女 / 陕西人 / 天津大学建筑学院在读硕士研究生 / 研究方向为风景园林理论与设计、低碳园林（天津 300072）
YANG Ning, born in 1994 in Shaanxi Province, postgraduate, School of Architecture, Tianjin University, her research focuses on landscape architecture theory and design, low-carbon landscape architecture (Tianjin 300072).
陈丽君 / 1994 年生 / 女 / 安徽人 / 天津大学建筑学院在读硕士研究生 / 研究方向为风景园林理论与设计、低碳园林（天津 300072）
CHEN Lijun, born in 1994 in Anhui Province, postgraduate, School of Architecture, Tianjin University, her research focuses on landscape architecture theory and design, low-carbon landscape architecture (Tianjin 300072).
Abstract: As a linear space connecting all parts of the city in the construction of Park City, the urban streetscape space constructs a valuable landscape network. Under the guidance of the concept of Park City, the urban streetscape space will take safety, vitality, green, characteristics and wisdom as its construction objectives, and design in five ways: qualitative change of road right, safe avenue, complementary three-dimensional space, emotional urban gene and multi-pole low-carbon wisdom. The advanced cases at home and abroad are analyzed, and the feasibility and inevitability transformation of the urban streetscape space is pointed out. The guiding role of the concept of Park City will be given full play in the future, and make overall planning and design by means of landscape architecture will be made, so as to make streets truly become green ecological corridors.
Key words: Park City; Streetscape space; Streetscape design; Human settlement environment
图 1 公园城市理念下的城市街景设计目标与途径
Figure 1 City Streetscape Design Objectives and Approaches under the Concept of Park City
图 2-1 改造前的伦敦展览路（图片来源 ：网络）
Figure 2-1 Exhibition Road Before Reconstruction（Source ：Internet）
图 2-2 改造后的伦敦展览路（图片来源 ：网络）
Figure 2-2 Exhibition Road After Reconstruction（Source ：Internet）
图 3 榕树形成的安全林荫廊道（图片来源 ：网络）
Figure 3 Safe Avenue Formed by Banyan Trees（Source ：Internet）
图 4 绿色的立体街景空间
Figure 4 Green 3D Streetscape Space
图 5-1 拉斯维加斯的大尺度街景空间
Figure 5-1 Large - scale Streetscape Space in Las Vegas (Source ：photo by the author)
图 5-2 苏州注重文化细节的街景空间
Figure 5-2 Streetscape Space in Suzhou Focusing on Cultural Details (Source ：photo by the author)
图 5-3 英国独具自然风情的街景空间
Figure 5-3 Streetscape Space with Natural Features in Britain (Source ：photo by the author)
Among the public places of activity in the city, streetscape space has the closest relationship with citizens. With the acceleration of urban construction, the traditional streetscape space is facing new challenges. Since the 1970s, the construction of streetscape space in Europe and the United States has gradually changed in policy and practice. After entering the 21st century, our country is also exploring a change to a “people-oriented" trend. The concept of “Park City" was put forward in 2018, encouraging carry out systematic construction of cities as a green ecological system. Streetscape space, as an important channel connecting different urban functional blocks, has a higher construction goal and a clearer construction idea. It is of great significance to explore new urban streetscape space design.
1 Park City Concept and City Streetscape Space
1.1 "Park City" Concept
In February 2018, President Xi Jinping visited to Chengdu Tianfu New Area, during the visit he stressed: "Tianfu New Area must be planned and built well, especially to highlight the characteristics of Park City, take ecological values into account, strive to create a new growth pole and build an inland open economic highland." In April, when President Xi participated in the voluntary tree planting activity in the capital, he stressed again that greening the motherland should adhere to the people-centered development thought. He proposed that " the expectation of a city is to turn the whole city into a big park. When people get out of the house, they all feel like they are in their own garden. "President Xi Jinping raised the concept of "Park City", which has aroused widespread discussion both inside and outside the industry and throughout the country.
The concept of "Park City" regards life and ecology as its main development contents, while taking account of the functions and activities of cities such as production. Its implementation of the people-oriented concept of ecological development combines China's excellent traditional garden culture with modern urban planning concepts and techniques to maximize the comprehensive benefits of gardens and build a beautiful human settlement. From "City Park" to "Park City", city planning is guided by the concept of "Park City" to highlight the unique attributes of different regions, levels, functions and textures, so as to create livable city garden space for residents and enable residents to enjoy the garden landscape when they going out of their homes.
1.2 City Streetscape Space
As an important part of city design, city garden streetscape has become a "soft" connection between architectural landscape, natural landscape and various artificial landscapes and city roads.  From a macro point of view, the streetscape space refers to the road space within the city, with all kinds of buildings, sidewalks and various municipal public facilities on both sides of all roads or most of the roads. From a micro point of view, it is mainly divided into vertical interface and horizontal interface. Vertical interface includes building facades, avenue trees, etc. The horizontal interface is the main interface, including pedestrians, cars, hard landscape, sketches, greening and so on, which together constitute the main content of the city streetscape space. 
1.3 Valuing Streetscape in Park City Construction
On the one hand, as the "connecting channel" of city space, the city streetscape space has the closest connection with citizens' daily life. It connects different functional areas of the city such as squares, parks, residential areas, etc. to coordinate with the development of the city and establish a continuous city landscape system. On the other hand, as the " outdoor living room" where citizens live, the city streetscape space creates the city natural environment by artificial means. It creates a continuous and diverse living environment for citizens, making city space have complete functions and forms, together with harmonious aesthetic integrity.
As a linear space connecting all parts of the city in the construction of the Park City, the city streetscape space builds a valuable landscape network. Under the guidance of the concept of Park City, the city will become a green ecological system. Landscape architecture will actively engage with city planning and architectural design to highlight the leading position of green ecology in city planning. The city will be unified through the concept of Park City. By making full use of the guiding role of the Park City concept and using landscape architecture to make overall planning and design, streetscape space will truly become a green ecological corridor.
2 From City Streetscape Space to Park City
2.1 Current Problems Faced by City Streetscape Space Construction
The concept of "Park City" embodies the new development concept of "ecological civilization" and "people-centered", which reflects the urgent need to change China's urbanization development mode.  Therefore, the urban streetscape space design faces higher requirements. At present, China's city streetscape space construction is developing slowly, mainly with the following problems: First, motor vehicles occupy the dominant position in the city streetscape space, resulting in the limitation of non-vehicle space. Pedestrians' right of road is not guaranteed. According to the investigation of streetscape space in Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities, the ratio of non-vehicle lanes to motorway is usually only about 0.3: 1. Second, the excessive hardening of streetscape design makes the green space not be properly protected and the ecological quality is difficult to improve. The main reason is that it is difficult to provide effective ecological protection for living things, which is not conducive to the construction of biodiversity. Third, the streetscape design is too single to form effective connection with buildings. When walking, pedestrians will not only look ahead but also notice the buildings on both sides of the road. Building facade is also an important part of streetscape space, but many streetscape designs are only a complanation extension, the green landscape space reserved by the building does not really play a role, and the hard appearance forms a strong contrast with the green space. Fourth, the original features of city streetscape are gradually losing in the continuous construction, and the street scenes are similar. Different physical geography and historical and cultural conditions have formed distinctive city genes, but these characteristics have not been significantly reflected in the city streetscape space. Fifth, the design concept of green and low carbon has not been valued in the streetscape construction, resulting in high carbon emission and low carbon sink. Some designs focus too much on landscape and ignore its ecological benefits, which is extremely disadvantageous to the improvement of city climate.
2.2 Streetscape Space Design Objectives Based on Park City Concept
Based on the problems faced by the city streetscape space under the current city development demand and the guiding role played by the "Park City" concept, five goals are proposed to promote the construction of a higher quality streetscape space:
(1) To create a safe streetscape space. Security is the most important goal in design. Security is an inherent pursuit of human beings and a prerequisite for citizens to live and work in peace and also the need for social stability. It is an important guarantee for city development to realize a safe streetscape space with good traffic order, reliable facilities and pedestrians first.
(2) To create an active streetscape space. Vitality is important for an active street. The active streetscape space features complex functions, comfortable environment, pleasant space and rich vision resource and so on. Creating an active streetscape space can provide citizens with a comfortable space environment experience, thus forming an attractive street atmosphere to enhance citizens' communication and encourage creativity and innovation development.
(3) To create a green streetscape space. Green streetscape space is a street landscape design formed under the guidance of ecological design and multi-functional landscape design. Its main characteristics include intensive resources, green travel, ecological planting, green technology and so on. A nice green streetscape space can not only bring people rich natural visual experience, but also solve the ecological problems in the environment, thus making contributions to the sustainable development of the city.
(4) To create characteristic streetscape space. The characteristic streetscape space is the expression of the city gene formed by the city's cultural and geographical environment through the streetscape to build a representative streetscape with city characteristics, which is an important part of the cityscape.
(5) To create an intelligent streetscape space. Intelligent street landscape is the integration of street facilities for intelligent transformation, which can provide people with intelligent changes, safe maintenance, environmental governance and other services, thus making the life of citizens more convenient. 
2.3 Approaches of Streetscape Space Design Based on Park City Concept
2.3.1 Qualitative Change of Road Right
The fundamental change of the right of way is to change the traffic space domi-nated by motor vehicles and focus on non-vehicle traffic, and to build a road traf-fic system guided by giving priority to buses and pedestrians and the coordination of city space and land use. To realize the optimal allocation of the right of way and the overall improvement of traffic quality. At the same time, it pays attention to enhancing the permeability of land plots, encouraging the development of shared space and creating a more equal and harmonious public environment (figure 1). Take the reconstruction of Exhibition Road in London as an example. It was also once a noisy street dominated by motor vehicles: Motor vehicles occupied most of the street space and drove too fast. The streets lacked green space. The sidewalks were too narrow and uninteresting, and the streetscape space was very monotonous. The reconstructed sidewalk is twice as wide as before and can accommodate more pedestrians. At the same time, the speed limit for motor vehicles here is 20 mph, about 1/3 slower than that of ordinary motor vehicles. The crisscrossing chessboard patterns paved with marbles and tall lampposts complement the surrounding environment. The streetscape with the same style creates a friendly and pleasant space (figure 2).
2.3.2 Safe Avenue
The safe tree-lined corridor uses the function of the street as a habitat and channel for the living things. The tree-lined space is used to connect different ecological environment patches in series to provide a safe and continuous habitat for city creatures and improve the city environment. It is of great significance to maintain the normal operation of city ecosystem and protect urban biodiversity. It also plays a role in improving the quality of street environment and people's living standards.  Banyan trees on Emile Avenue in Spain can date back to 60 or 70 years ago. The three rows of banyan trees constitute the main landscape of the avenue. It is located in the middle of two motorways. On the one hand, it provides ecological services such as cooling and noise reduction for the road, and on the other hand, it creates a safe walking environment and leisure space for pedestrians (figure 3).
2.3.3 Complementary Three-dimensional Space
Complementary three-dimensional space means that street design is not limited to one plane, but expanded into three-dimensional space. Building facades and roof planes on both sides of the street are also important components for building space. The street interface is regarded as a continuous and unified part, and architecture, planning and landscape design are coordinated from the perspective of city planning. The green technique is used to unify them in the streetscape space to create a natural harmonious landscape (figure 4).
Strict laws, regulations and policies formulated by the government having been increasing public concern for green ecology, Singapore has truly achieved the integration of city and garden. Other interfaces between the both sides of streets and buildings, such as roofs, balconies and walls, are full of green. The lush vegetation forms a three-dimensional garden, and its city streetscape creates the best space for city life.
2.3.4 Emotional Urban Gene
The city gene of emotion is to strengthen the city's natural and human characteristics through design, so that the unique gene of each city can be fully developed. As an important way of showing city genes, the city streetscape conveys the city information, continues the city memory and gives the city a special vitality.
From different city genes, we can see that in the streetscape space design of Las Vegas in the United States, the imaginative designer has created a series of spectacular and dynamic large-scale road landscape with varied streetscape themes. In contrast, Suzhou, as a national famous historical and cultural city, its city streetscape reflects traditional culture and landscape. Therefore, it pays more attention to details, especially the small landscape. In addition, Britain has hilly terrain and a large area of pasture. Its streetscape space is full of natural romance and brightness, free and comfortable (figure 5).
2.3.5 Multipolar Low-carbon Wisdom
Multipolar low-carbon wisdom means reducing street carbon and increasing carbon absorption through intelligent measures and advanced scientific concepts, so as to develop the ecological service function of city streetscape. By using the excellent street environment to promote walking, reducing the management and maintenance consumption of gardens, emphasizing the recycling of garden resources, and reducing carbon emissions in the construction process, the goal of low-carbon can be achieved. Building a intelligent low-carbon landscape is the inexorable trend of social development in the future.
Today, many low-carbon intelligent facilities have been put into use, such as garbage bins that can be charged by solar energy and automatically compress garbage. Setting of street lamps to monitor the surrounding environment and help the government control the quality of the city environment; Anti-theft, anti-waterlogging, easy-to-manage manhole covers, etc. Increasing the coverage rate of smart facilities, improving the functions of smart facilities and enhancing the concept of low-carbon ecology are important measures for the sustainable development of streetscape space in the future.
3 To Create Sustainable City Streetscape Space
Sustainable streetscape space plays an important role in forming the visual image of a sustainable city. It is one of the most important factors for the success of a city and also a tourist attraction.  The design of city streetscape should be based on design guideline, to increase public awareness and ecological value, and emphasize green and low carbon. The streetscape space plays an important role in the sustainable city by guiding the government, designers and street users.
3.1 Based on Design Guidelines
Since the 1990s, Britain's transportation policies have been oriented towards the integration of transportation and land use planning.  In 2004, London issued the world's first street design guideline-London Streetscape Guideline, which adheres to the people-oriented principle and serves to make London a city suitable for walking and sustainable development. Since then, streetscape guidance have been published in various countries, such as Abu Dhabi streetscape guidance (2009) and India streetscape guidance (2011). As a pioneer of China's city development and transformation, Shanghai issued " Shanghai Street Design Guidelines" in 2016 to promote street construction with humanity. It can be seen that the future city streetscape space should be a comprehensive and standardized design based on design guidelines.
3.2 Enhancing Public Awareness
Citizens are the main users of the city streetscape space. Only when the users recognize and participate in the design can an active street space be constructed. Therefore, in the planning, design and implementation of the streets, it is necessary to make the owners along the roads, residents around the streets and the public participate in actively. In the street construction and renovation project, a communication platform for the government, developers and citizens will be set up to coordinate all parties and guide citizens to participate in the design. On the other hand, the public, as the focus of street design, should also establish a sense of responsibility and take the initiative to maintain the environment and the streetscape order.
3.3 Enhancing Ecological Value
At present, many ecological concepts and measures in our country have not been implemented, so the city ecological environment has not been fundamentally improved. The main reason lies in the excessive artificialization, which leads to the instability of the ecosystem. Therefore the implementation of the ecological concept is not only through design, but also to strengthen the value of the ecosystem itself. It is better to transform ecosystem in a more natural way.
3.4 Highlighting Green and Low Carbon
With the accelerating process of urbanization, energy consumption and carbon emissions have increased dramatically, resulting in more negative effects of climate change. The climate in urban areas may enter a vicious circle. Low-carbon streetscape construction costs low and takes effect quickly, which is an inevitable choice for the sustainable development of the city. The concept of sustainable development is rarely considered in the design of the existing city streetscape space construction. Low-carbon green space construction involves energy saving, carbon reduction and environmental restoration. It is an inevitable choice for the sustainable development of the city to raise the public’s environmental awareness from more aspects. The future construction of green and low-carbon city streetscape space will promote the sustainable development of the ecological environment and realize the protection of good ecosystems and the restoration of damaged ecosystems. It will also create economic and ecological benefits superior to those of the original landscape system, ensure the sustainable use of resources and the sustainable development of the environment, and realize intensive utilization of social resources.
The city streetscape space is the main component of the city landscape system. In order to meet the guidance of the concept of "Park City" and the needs of city development, building a safe, active, green, characteristic and intelligent streetscape space is the main goal of streetscape design in the future. In order to achieve the goal, streetscape planning and design are carried out by five methods: Fundamental change of the right of way, safe tree-lined corridors, complementary three-dimensional space, city genes of emotion and multipolar low-carbon wisdom. Its implementation requires the cooperation of the government, designers and citizens. Only realizing the people-oriented concept and coordination of all parties by idea cultivation,policy formulation, planning and design, service management, etc. Can the comprehensive benefits of city streetscape space be maximized.
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