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    人口变迁下高龄友善公园建构之省思:台湾案例研究
    2019-07-19  点击:[]

    人口变迁下高龄友善公园建构之省思:台湾案例研究

    On Construction of Age-friendly Park Under Demographic Change:Case Study from Taiwan, China

     

    李丽雪

    Lee Leehsueh

     

    李丽雪 / 1964 年生 / / 东海大学景观学系教授、系主任 / 研究方向为生态景观规划设计、生态美学和环境行为

    通信作者邮箱(Corresponding author Email:lslee@thu.edu.tw

    Lee Leehsueh, was born in 1964, professor, dean of landscape architecture, Tunghai University, her research focuses on ecological landscape planning and design, ecological aesthetic and environmental behavior.

     

    摘要:研究以问卷及现场观察高龄者对台北市大安森林公园及四个邻里公园的使用情形的分析结果,结合国内外文献提出高龄友善公园规划设计原则。研究显示,在抵达距离相近的情况下,高龄者偏好到大型公园游憩。高龄者公园使用人数比例低于人口结构组成,可能是因为高龄者普遍认为公园设施不适合且不充足。高龄者因为身心状况,对独立性及控制感特别重视,具有良好的可及性、安全感、自明性及选择权的设计可以让公园的高龄使用者享有愉悦感及幸福感。

    关键词:在地老化;并行设施;第三场所

     

    Abstract: Based on the results of questionnaire and field observation of the elderly in the Daan Forest Park and four neighboring parks in Taipei City, the planning and design principles of age-friendly parks were proposed in combination with domestic and foreign literature. Studies have shown that the elderly prefer to visit large parks when they arrive at a similar distance. The proportion of elderly park users is lower than that of the composition of the population structure, possibly because the elderly generally believe that the park facilities are inconsistent and insufficient. The elderly attach great importance to independence and sense of control due to their physical and mental conditions, and the design with good accessibility, safety, legibility and choice can make the park's elderly users enjoy pleasure and the sense of happiness.

    Key words: aging in place; parallel facilities; third places

    引言

    过去40年以来,全球正步入老龄化阶段,不断扩大的老龄化趋势也意味着老龄化的社会空间条件与过去决裂,促使城市转型建构高龄友善城市[1]。开放空间建设与在地老化议题相结合,让老人在自己的小区内有自由独立、安全、可及并且方便的公园活动空间,是高龄者可以在地维持高水平生活质量的条件之一。

    老人从事休闲活动可感受到内心的自由与忘我,对健康的好处包括延缓认知功能下降,提升心理健康,生活满意度及幸福感等。世界卫生组织指出,高龄友善公园的建构会让高龄者的小区生活觉得更有安全感[1]

    随着中国台湾地区人口结构向高龄化发展,建立及完善高龄友善环境被认为是人口老化政策的核心。在现阶段的公园建设上,无障碍设计的阳春步道是高龄者活动的主要场所,少有满足高龄者休闲游憩活动需求的使用规划。公园是高龄者休闲的重要场所,可带来身心满足,是在地老化政策成功的重要元素之一。本研究藉由了解高龄者公园使用现况及需求,归纳高龄者友善公园的规划设计原则。

     

    1 文献回顾

    在地老化指无论年龄、收入或能力,人们可以安全、独立、舒适地生活在自己的家庭和小区中的能力。有许多研究指出,超过九成的高龄者更愿意留在他们的小区。一方面,高龄者不仅是身体和心理,且群体的社会和文化都展现出惊人的多样化;另一方面,社会网络资源薄弱或主观的孤独感与无助、无望感常与老人的自杀行为紧密相关。适当的运动与社交活动可维持高龄者生理和心理健康,并可改善心理上的社交隔离与孤独感,进一步降低死亡及罹患阿尔兹海默病的风险。开放空间与高龄者的健康、安全感及生活满意度有关,创造高龄友善环境反映了社会公平、尊严、参与和赋权[2]

    1.1 高龄者健康的生理、心理需求

    世界卫生组织指出,面对高龄化社会,高龄友善公园为高龄友善城市必要项目之一。世界卫生组织将健康定义为“完整的身心理状态和社会福祉”。人类老龄化具有明显的生物、心理和社会特征,因此,高龄者的开放空间需求应从以下三个方面考虑。

    生理需求方面:随着年龄的增长,高龄者健康问题增多,使得其在地老化偏好发生改变。高龄者通常也是最不活跃的群体,这可能导致身体健康问题;许多老人也有被隔离的风险,这可能导致心理健康问题。高龄者因为身体生物学变化,会产生肌耐力减少,平衡性、听力和视力变差等身体磨损现象,并伴随着至少一种慢性疾病。公园等开放空间对高龄者健康有正向影响,这也关系到长者的福祉和生活质量。研究显示,经常到有绿色植物的户外空间活动对老人身体健康十分有益,尤其是具有适意性、安全性和美感的公园。

    心理需求方面:高龄者对于开放空间的需求,表达的不仅是身体健康需要,更有心理和情感健康需求,同时也传达了对小区安全的感受。公园设计让高龄者具有选择和控制感,可以满足高龄者对独立的渴望。因为高龄者的身体生理变化,公园在实质环境上的稳定性有助于提高高龄者的地点适应性。

    社会需求方面:公园在小区中扮演着建构自然小区网络的角色,高龄者在公园里更喜欢和自己的同龄人群在一起,良好的社会互动对高龄者健康及生活满意度有正向影响。设计良好的公园是高龄者的聚集空间,可视为第三场所或碰撞地点。

    1.2 高龄者活动需求

    老龄化过程是持续变化的,若无适当的环境支持,会使高龄者与环境联系失去平衡。高龄者通过调节对环境的需求来补偿随着年龄日益增加的生理、心理及社会限制。然而,环境也应该调整以配合老年人需求,符合高龄友善城市建构的宗旨。

    高龄者在公园中最常见的活动是健身或步行,公园内外部通达路径质量是影响高龄者公园使用意愿的重要因素。易辨识、可及性高的公园入口也影响高龄者的公园使用频率。因为体力限制,公园距离越远,使用频率越低。公园设施多样性和团体性的体育活动都为高龄者所偏好。设施的多样性应能兼顾使用者年龄、性别和身体状况,这与高龄者的生理和心理的高异质性有关。

     

    2 研究调查

    2.1 研究基地

    本研究旨在了解高龄者对都市公园及邻里公园的使用行为,藉由研究成果提出让公园成为建构高龄者在地老化、活跃老化的一个环节。中国台湾地区于2018年迈入高龄化社会,台北市65岁以上的老年人约占人口总数的16.87%,其中大安区占26.42%,属超高龄社会。

    研究基地大安森林公园位于台北市大安区内,面积260 000 m2,日游客量达30005000人,假日更可达2000030000人;其方圆1 km范围内有4个邻里公园:连云公园、民荣公园、金华公园和新龙公园,面积均介于2000 m24000 m2,使用人数以假日居多,约100200人。大安森林公园调查时间为:20159月至20164月,采用问卷调查;201610月、12月及20172月,观察五个公园高龄者使用情况。

     

    3 研究结果

    3.1 使用时段及使用人数比例

    大安森林公园高龄使用者人数比例略低于10%,使用时间多在5:00-8:3015:30-18:00。四个邻里公园使用人群以亲子为主,单独或结伴的高龄使用者所占比例约为5%10%,使用时段多在15:30-18:00。冬季,大安森林公园高龄者使用时间上午集中在6:00-8:30,五个公园下午使用时段为15:00-17:00。季节气候因素会影响高龄者的公园使用状况。另外,在星期日,大安森林公园大部分团体活动停止,高龄使用者会减少,但邻里公园高龄者则比平日多。

    行动不便者多在邻里公园活动,时间以7:00-8:0015:00-17:00为主。坐轮椅者在有陪护的情况下多会到大安森林公园活动,时间多在周一至周五15:00-17:30,周末15:00-18:00;家人陪伴者则多在邻里公园活动,时间约为16:00-17:00

    3.2 活动类型及地点

    大安森林公园高龄使用者在上午时段多是参与健身团体活动,个人前来的比例颇高。下午时段多是个人或结伴前来健身、散步、看风景及赏鸟等。而邻里公园的活动多为静态活动、散步、闲坐等,且多与邻居、儿童或照看者结伴同行。其中行动不便的高龄者,如坐轮椅者,多在下午时段活动,以闲坐为主,与他人互动少。在大安森林公园的活动者多由陪护人员陪伴,由家人陪伴者多在邻里公园活动。

    大安森林公园活动地点方面,团体活动以树荫多的草地为主,个人活动者多在健康步道、凉亭、体健设施区、生态池畔等地。邻里公园的活动地点一般是有遮荫的树下座椅或凉亭。

    3.3 公园设施

    大安森林公园设施主要是儿童游戏场、溜冰场、篮球场、慢跑道、大草坪及音乐台,一些小型广场则多为动线节点,不适合团体活动。邻里公园多以儿童游乐设施为主,少数有体健设施,通道型广场并不适合团体活动使用。整体而言,公园设施多为儿童及青少年规划设计。大安森林公园设有七间厕所,邻里公园则没有厕所,座椅多沿着步道以线状配置,对社交活动帮助不大。

    3.4 高龄者公园活动特征

    3.4.1 使用行为特征

    高龄者在对公园的选择上,距离为最主要的影响因素,不论是否使用交通工具,10分钟~15分钟可以到达公园的距离为高龄者认为的最理想的选择范围。高龄者,尤其是女性,通常选择结伴去公园。

    3.4.2 个人参与活动特征

    高龄女性参与团体活动的比例高于男性。参与团体活动的高龄者,对自身健康情况的评价普遍高于没有参加的。高龄者未参与团体活动的主要原因为费用、没兴趣、不知道如何跟他人互动等。教育程度高中以上、经济状态较好的高龄者,倾向于参与团体活动。高龄者群体的异质性极大,其休闲活动参与率会随着年龄增加而下降。2017年中国台湾地区公布台湾人口平均寿命为80.4岁,本研究调查结果显示,70岁以上高龄者占公园使用人口的比例低于1%,参与休闲活动的频率明显低于其他年龄层。

    3.4.3 参与活动特征

    高龄者在公园多从事被动式活动,这可能与公园实质环境内容对高龄者并不友善的状况有关。高龄者最在乎的设施为休憩座椅、遮阴树、平整铺面(喜欢水泥材质铺面),最希望可以增设体健设施,并且皆认为公园应该在适当定点提供多种类型的警示装置,以便紧急状况发生时,能及时提醒公园内所有使用者及管理人员。

     

    4 结论与建议

    中国台湾地区公园建设及管理由各县市制定公园管理自治条例,内容主要是公园设施设置及公园管理相关规定。另就使用者根据所谓“身心障碍者权益保障法”及“儿童及少年福利与权益保障法”分别设有无障碍设施设置原则、设施设备设计标准与儿童游戏场安全工作指引手册、管理规范及设备安全准则。高龄者对公园的使用需求未有相关规定保障。本研究调查发现,高龄者对大安森林公园设施课题的反馈事项包括:路线复杂容易迷路、指示牌看不清楚或看不懂、休憩设施不足、服务设施不足且不符生理需求、缺少可供社交使用的广场及设施配置、活动场地不足无法满足活动需求等。邻里公园的使用者则普遍认为,该公园通用设计考虑不足、缺乏可以运动的设施、绿荫不足。这表明公园设计在高龄者需求及适合度方面是明显不足的。

    中国台湾地区2018年人口数据显示,高龄人口比例高于儿童人口;本研究调查结果显示,公园设施多为儿童、青少年及健康成年人考虑。美国景观师协会2015年的报告指出,美国邻里公园建设也有类似现象,研究指出,在美国,虽然老年人数量占总人口的18%,却仅占公园使用人数的4%,儿童约占总人口的20%,而公园使用人数比例达38%[3]。这并不意味着老年人不想利用公园,而是因为大多数公园都倾向为儿童及年轻人使用设计,邻里公园对老年人的建设和投资分配明显是严重不足的[4]

    《联合国老人纲领》提出老年人独立、参与、照顾、自我实现及尊严等原则,为适应高龄人口增加国家及社会政策思考方向。高龄者因为身体和认知能力、社会文化特征的差异,所以本身是一个特殊的群体,高龄友善公园设计除了应仔细考虑环境的自然及社会特征除外,还要在设计中识别和解决高龄者的需求和偏好。两份研究指出公园的可及性、活动机会、安全、美感等因素会影响使用者到公园活动的意愿[5][6]。为符合上述倡议原则,高龄友善公园设计应以控制感为主轴,从方向感与自明性、选择权、可及性及安全感这四个构成面向来思考(图1)。

    高龄者身体及认知能力衰减,所以控制感特别重要,控制感与《联合国老人纲领》五项原则实践有关。公园配置及设施具有良好的方向性与自明性,可以让高龄者有控制感。尤其是对可能患有认知障碍的高龄者来说,这项感受尤为重要。设置多样的景观、设施及主被动活动供高龄者选择,让高龄者享受不同选择是有意义的。

    害怕在公园活动被绊倒或摔倒,不得不穿越繁忙的街道是高龄者使用公园的主要压力来源;高龄者也会担心自己成为犯罪的受害者。因此,公园的可视性及安全管理是至关重要的。此外,通过设计元素和材料的选择,可以降低高龄者在园区内跌倒的风险;公园周边街道路口的交通标识、安全的人行道及行穿线等,都可让高龄者轻松地独自进入公园、悠游闲逛、使用设施并感到安全,这些会让高龄者感觉到良好的控制感。无障碍设计具有身体和心理两个层面,公园中应有某些空间或活动的设计是迎合高龄者的,这符合物理及心理上的可及性。

    社会支持与健康息息相关,公园可以促进高龄者之间及与其他群体或不同年龄层的互动和社交,座椅的安排不仅为了提供休憩,更重要的是藉由配置或可移动座椅为社交互动提供可能性。景观优美的停留空间可以成为人们聚集的场所,也可以成为小区信息交流平台。这些都有利于高龄者建构社会支持网络。

    步行、身体活动及规律活动对高龄者的健康有益,研究指出,公园设施对身体活动有正向影响[6]。高龄者因为身体健康因素,和其他群体相比更倾向于久坐的生活方式,身体阻碍使得许多高龄者不愿参与身体活动,然而也可能是因为缺乏适当活动空间和社会支持。公园提供适当的游憩设施和步道可以鼓励高龄者参与身体活动。研究也指出,高龄者独自在公园步行或运动会觉得尴尬,因此可以促进人际互动的设施配置方式也很重要。

    高龄游戏场正在崛起,我们都知道有吸引力的步道可鼓励步行,但设置不同长度和难度级别的散步道提供锻炼的机会,以满足不同身心水平高龄者的需求,并让其在活动上有选择的机会也很重要。相较于一般年长者,行动不便的老人更需要加强其运动的意愿并培养身体活动的习惯。另外,排除或限制某些危险活动,与其他年龄层并行设施或许较共融设施更适合高龄者身体状况。

    公园是都市中的重要绿地,自然景观有改善高龄者情绪状态、降低负面忧郁想法、促进身心健康的作用。公园为高龄者提供与自然接触、欣赏季节变化的机会,这种感官刺激应该包括视觉、听觉、触觉及嗅觉。高龄者步伐较慢,行走距离比年轻人短,因此,这些自然的感官刺激特征在空间配置上应该较一般设计间隔更近,同时考虑视觉变化的数量,以免造成视觉混乱。

    高龄者因为身心状况,对公园的需求与其他年龄层不同,并且高龄者因为性别、文化、收入、身体的差异,对公园的需求也不一样。从研究中我们可知,高龄友善公园有助于改善高龄者的身心健康及社会疏离问题。然而,设计的挑战是公园建构的环境是否真正适合这些异质的高龄者。所以参与式设计尤其重要,目的即在于让公园成为高龄者的另一处安全的避风港。

                                                 

    1 高龄友善公园设计思考的四个原则

    Figure 1 Four Principles for Design and Thinking of Age-friendly Park (Source: drawn by the author)

     

    Introduction

    Over the past 40 years, the global population is entering the aging stage, and the expanding trend of "population aging" also means that the social spatial conditions of aging are breaking with the past, prompting the urban transformation to construct an age-friendly city [1]. The construction of open space is linked to the issue of aging in place. Allowing the elderly to have free, independent, safe, accessible and convenient park activities in their own communities is one of the conditions for the elderly to maintain a high standard of quality of life in place. The elderly can feel their inner freedom and selflessness when they engage in leisure activities. The health benefits include delaying cognitive decline, improving mental health, life satisfaction and happiness.The World Health Organization (WHO) pointed out that the provision of age-friendly park would make the community life of the elderly feel more secure [1].

    With the development of population structure towards aging in Taiwan, China the establishment and promotion of a friendly environment in the elderly is considered to be the core of the population aging policy. At the present stage of park construction, barrier-free design of Yangchun footpath is the main content of providing activities for the elderly, and there is little use planning for leisure and recreation activities for the elderly. The park, which can bring physical and mental satisfaction for the elderly, is an important place for them to relax, and is one of the important elements for success in aging in place. This study summarizes the planning and design principles of the age-friendly park by understanding the current situation and needs of the park for the elderly.

    1 Literature Review

    Aging in place refers to the ability to live safely, independently and comfortably in one's own home and community regardless of age, income or ability. Many studies have shown that over 90% of the elderly prefer to stay in their communities. On the one hand, the elderly are not only physically and mentally but also socially and culturally amazingly diverse; on the other hand, weak social network resources or subjective loneliness and helplessness and hopelessness are often closely related to the elderly people’s suicidal behaviors. Appropriate exercise and social activities can maintain the physical and mental health of the elderly, improve the psychological isolation and loneliness, and further reduce the risk of death and Alzheimer's disease. Open space is associated with health, safety and life satisfaction of the elderly. Creating an age-friendly environment reflects social equity, dignity, participation and empowerment [2].

    1.1 The Healthy Physiological and Psychological Needs of the Elderly

    WHO points out that the age-friendly park is one of the necessary projects for the age-friendly city, and it defines health as "the complete physical and mental state and social well-being". Human aging has obvious biological, psychological and social characteristics, so the demand for open space of the elderly should be considered from these three aspects.

    Physiological needs: With the increase of age, the preference of aging in place of the elderly are challenged due to the increase of health risks. The elderly are also often the least active group, which can lead to health problems. Many of the elderly are also at the risk of being quarantined, which can lead to mental health problems. Because of physical and biological changes, elderly people have physical wear and tear, balance, hearing and vision deterioration, accompanied by at least one chronic health problem or disease. Open spaces such as parks have a positive impact on the health of the elderly, which is also related to the well-being and quality of life of the elderly. Studies have shown that frequent trips to outdoor spaces with greenery are good for the health of the elderly, especially those parks with a sense of comfort, safety and beauty.

    Psychological needs: Elderly people's demand for open space not only expresses their needs of physical health, but also their needs of psychological and emotional health, as well as their feelings of community safety. The park is designed to give the elderly a sense of choice and control and to satisfy their desire for independence. Also due to physical changes, the park's physical environmental stability helps to improve the site adaptability of the elderly.

    Social needs Parks play a role in building the natural community network in the community. The elderly prefer to be with their peers in the park. Good social interaction has a positive impact on the health and life satisfaction of the elderly. A well-designed park is a gathering space around the elderly and may be regarded as third places or bumping places.

    1.2 Activity Needs of the Elderly

    The aging process is a continuous change. Without appropriate supporting environment, the elderly and the environment will be out of balance. The elder compensate for the increasing physical, psychological, and social limitations of aging by adjusting their environmental needs. However, the environment should also be adjusted to meet the needs of the elderly to meet the purpose of the construction of a age-friendly city.

    Exercise or walking is the most common activity of the elderly in the park, and the quality of the access path inside and outside the park is an important factor affecting the willingness of the elderly to use the park. Easily identifiable and accessible entrances also affect the frequency of park use among the elderly. Because of physical limitations, the farther the park is, the less frequently it is used. The diversity of park facilities and group sports activities are preferred by the elderly. The diversity of facilities should take age, sex and physical condition into consideration due to the high physical and psychological heterogeneity of the elderly.

    2 The Research and Survey

    2.1 The Research Base

    The purpose of this study is to understand the use behavior of the elderly in urban parks and neighboring parks. Based on the research results, it is proposed to make parks become a link in the construction of aging in place and active aging of the elderly. Taiwan, China will enter an aging society in 2018. Taipei city's elderly population over 65 years old accounts for 16.87% of the total population, among which 26.42% are in Daan district, which is a super-aged society.

    The research base, Daan Forest Park is located in the Daan district of Taipei City, covering an area of 260,000 m2. The daily tourist volume is 3,000~5,000, and on holiday, it can reach 2000~4000. There are 4 neighboring parks within 1 km of the surrounding area: Lianyun Park, Minrong Park, Jinhua Park, and Xinlong Park, each with an area of 200,000~400,000 m2. Most of the users go there on holidays, about 100~200 people. The investigation period of Daan Forest Park was: from September 2015 to April 2016, using questionnaire survey. In October 2016, December 2016 and February 2017, the use of five parks for the elderly was observed.

    3 The Research Result

    3.1 Duration of Use and Proportion of Users

    The proportion of elderly users in Daan Forest Park is slightly less than 10%, and the use time is usually between 5:00 to 8:30 and 15:30 to 18:00. The users of the 4 neighboring parks are mainly parents and children, and the proportion of the elderly users alone or in groups is about 5-10%, and the use time is usually 15:30 to 18:00. In winter, the elderly use time of Daan Forest Park is from 6:00 to 8:30 in the morning, and the use time of 5 parks is from 15:00 to 17:00 in the afternoon. Factors of seasonal weather may affect the use of the park of the elderly. In addition, when most group activities in Daan Forest Park on Sundays stop, the number of elderly users will decrease, but the number of elderly users in the neighboring park will be higher than usual.

    People unable to move freely more likely to take part in activities in neighboring parks, and the time is mainly from 7:00 to 8:00 and 15:00 to 17:00. People in wheelchairs with escorts will often go to Daan Forest Park for activities, usually from 15:00 to 17:30 on Monday to Friday, and from 15:00 to 18:00 on Saturday and Sunday. Those accompanied by family members are more likely to take part in activities in neighboring parks, and the time is about 16:00 to 17:00.

    3.2 Type and Location of Activities

    The elderly users in Daan Forest Park mostly participate in fitness group activities in the morning, and the proportion of individuals is quite high. In the afternoon, people come here individually or in group mostly for fitness, walking, sightseeing, and bird watching, etc. The neighboring parks are mostly static activities, like walking and sitting, etc., and people are often accompanied by neighbors, children or caregivers. Among them, the elderly with mobility problems, such as those in wheelchairs, are more active in the afternoon, mainly sitting around and seldom interacting with others. In Daan Forest Park, most of the activists are accompanied by maids, and those with family are more likely to be active in neighboring parks.

    In terms of the activity location of Daan Forest Park, the group activities are mainly on the grass with much tree shade, while the individual activities are mostly on the health footpath, pavilion, fitness facilities area, and ecological poolside. Activities in neighboring parks are often under shaded trees or pavilion.

    3.3 Park Facility

    The facilities of Daan Forest Park are mainly children's playground, ice rink, basketball court, jogging track, big lawn and music station. Some small squares are mostly moving nodes which are not suitable for group activities. Neighboring parks are mostly children's amusement facilities, a few of them have fitness facilities, and passageway plaza is not suitable for group activities. As a whole, park facilities are mostly planned and designed for children and teenagers. There are seven toilets in Daan Forest Park and no toilets in the neighboring parks. The seats are arranged along the walkway in line, which is not very helpful for social activities.

    3.4 Activity Characteristics in the Park for the Elderly

    3.4.1 Characteristics of Use Behavior

    The distance is the most important factor for the elderly to choose a park, and the distance of 10~15 minutes is the most ideal range for the elderly to choose a park, regardless of how to go there. The elderly, especially women, tend to go to parks in groups.

    3.4.2 Characteristics of Individual Participation

    Elderly women are more likely to participate in group activities than men. The self-evaluation of the health condition of the elderly who participate in group activities are generally better than those who do not. Costs, lack of interest, and not knowing how to interact with others are the main reasons for not participating in group activities. The elderly with a high school degree or above and good economic status are more likely to participate in group activities. The heterogeneity of the elderly is very large, and the participation rate of leisure activities will decrease with the increase of age. Taiwan, China announced in 2017 that the average life expectancy of Taiwan China's population is 80.4 years old. The survey results of this study show that the proportion of people over 70 years old who use parks is less than 1%, and the frequency of leisure activities is significantly lower than that of other age groups.

    3.4.3 Characteristics of Participation

    The elderly are mostly engaged in passive activities in the park, which may be related to the fact that the park's substantial environmental content is not friendly to the elderly. The most important facilities for the elderly are lounge seats, shade, smooth pavement (They like cement pavement). Fitness facilities, and various types of warning devices should be provided at appropriate points in the park to alert all users and managers in case of emergency.

     

    4 Conclusions and Suggestions

    The construction and management of parks in Taiwan, China is governed by the municipal government of each county. The contents are mainly related to the setting of park facilities and park management. In addition, according to what they call law on the Protection of the Rights and Interests of the Physically and Mentally Disabled and law on the Protection of the Rights and Interests of Children and Teenagers, there are the principles for the establishment of barrier-free facilities, the design standards for facilities and equipment, the working guidelines for the safety of children's playgrounds, the management norms and the safety standards for equipment. There is no relevant regulation or guarantee for the use of the elderly in the park. The research found that the elderly people’s responses to the project include that: the complex line is easy to get lost, the sign is not clear or incomprehensible, the recreational facilities are inadequate, the service facilities are insufficient and do not meet physiological needs. There is a lack of squares and facilities for social use. And insufficient activity space can not meet the needs of activities. Neighboring parks are generally considered to be poorly designed, lacking athletic facilities and shade. It shows that the park design is obviously insufficient in the needs and suitability of the elderly.

    The population data of Taiwan, China in 2018 shows that the proportion of the elderly is higher than that of children. The survey results of this research show that the park facilities are mostly under the consideration of children, teenagers and healthy adults. The report of the American association of landscape architects in 2015 pointed out a similar phenomenon in the construction of neighboring parks in the United States. The study pointed out that although the elderly accounted for 18% of the total population, they only accounted for 4% of the park users. Children accounted for about 20% of the total population, and 38% of the park users [3]. This does not mean that the elderly do not want to use the park, but because most parks tend to be designed for children and young people, the investment allocation of neighboring park construction is obviously not enough for the elderly [4].

    The United Nations Programme for the Elderly proposes the principles of independence, participation, care, self-realization and dignity to increases the direction of national and social policies for the elderly population. In the design of age-friendly park , in addition to carefully considering the natural and social characteristics of the environment, we need to realize that the elderly are a heterogeneous group due to their differences in physical and cognitive abilities and social and cultural characteristics. Therefore, the needs and preferences of the elderly should be identified and addressed in the design. Two studies have pointed out that the accessibility, activity opportunity, safety, beauty and other factors of the park will affect the willingness of users to participate in the park activities [5][6]. In order to comply with the above proposals and principles, the design of age-friendly park should take the sense of control as the main axis, and consider the four components of the sense of direction and legibility, choice, accessibility, and safety (figure 1).

    The sense of control is especially important for the elderly because of their declining physical and cognitive abilities.The sense of control is related to the practice of the five principles of the elderly. If the parks have a good direction and legibility, the elderly can feel the sense of control. This feeling is especially important for the elderly who may have cognitive impairment. A variety of landscapes, facilities and active and passive activities can be seen and participated in, making it meaningful for the elderly to enjoy different options. The fear of tripping or falling, or having to cross busy streets, is a major source of stress for the elderly when using the park. The elder also worry that they may be victims of crime. Therefore, park visibility and safety management are necessary. In addition, the selection of design elements and materials can reduce the risk of falling down in the park. Traffic signs at street junctions around the park, safe sidewalks and crosswalks allow the elderly to enter the park at ease on their own, wander around, use the facilities and feel safe. So the elderly will feel they have a good sense of control. Barrier-free design has both physical and psychological aspects, and the park should have certain spaces or activities designed to welcome the elderly, which is physically and psychologically accessible.

    Social support is related to health. Parks can promote interaction and socialization among the elderly and other groups or different age groups. The arrangement of seats is not only to provide rest, but also to provide the possibility of social interaction through configuration or movable seats. The beautiful landscape of the stay space can become a place for people to gather together, and a community information exchange platform. All of these contribute to the construction of social support networks for the elderly.

    Walking, physical activity and regular activity have a positive impact on the health of the elderly, and studies have pointed out that park facilities have a positive impact on physical activity [6]. The elderly are more likely to have an overly sedentary lifestyle than other groups due to physical health factors. Physical barriers discourage many of the elderly from engaging in physical activity, however, it may also be due to a lack of adequate mobility and social support. Providing appropriate recreational facilities and trails, the park can encourage physical activity among the elderly. The study also points out that the elderly are embarrassed walking alone in a park or playing sports, so facilities that can promote human interaction are also very important.

    Senior playground is on the rise. As we all know, a beautiful and attractive footpath can encourage walking, but it is also important to set up different lengths and levels of difficulty to provide the opportunity for exercise, so as to meet the needs of people with different levels of body and mind, and to give them the opportunity to choose their activities. Compared with the general elderly, the elderly with mobility problems need to strengthen their willingness to exercise and establish physical activity habits. Additionally, by excluding or limiting some certain hazardous activities, parallel facilities with other age groups may be better suited to the physical condition of the elderly than play for all facilities.

    Park is an important green space in the city. The natural landscape can improve the emotional state of the elderly, reduce their negative and melancholy thoughts, and promote their mental health. The park provides the elderly with the opportunity to interact with nature and appreciate the seasonal changes. This sensory stimulation should include sight, hearing, touch and smell. Due to the slow pace and short walking distance of the elderly, the spatial configuration of these natural sensory stimuli should be closer than the general design. Also the number of visual changes need to be taken in consideration to avoid visual confusion.

    The needs of the elderly for parks are different from those of other age groups due to their physical and mental conditions. In addition, the needs of the elderly for parks are also different due to the differences in gender, culture, income and body. We know from the research that the age-friendly parks are beneficial to the physical and mental health and the improvement of social alienation of the elderly. However, the design challenge is whether the park environment is really suitable for these heterogeneous elderly. Participatory design is particularly important to make the park a safe haven for the elderly.

     

    参考文献(References):

    [1] World Health Organization. (2007). Global age-friendly cities: A guide. World Health Organization[Z].

    https://www.who.int/ageing/publications/Global_age_friendly_cities_Guide_English.pdf (retrieved on 15/12/2018)

    [2] Timmer, V., & Seymoar, N. K. (2005, March). Vancouver Working Group Discussion Paper [R] . In The World Urban Forum 2006.

    [3] Cohen, D. A., & Leuschner, K. J. (2018). How Can Neighborhood Parks Be Used to Increase Physical Activity?[Z]

    [4]Cohen, D. A., Han, B., Nagel, C. J., Harnik, P., McKenzie, T. L., Evenson, K. R., ... & Katta, S. (2016). The first national study of neighborhood parks: Implications for physical activity[J]. American journal of preventive medicine, 51(4), 419-426.

    https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR2400/RR2490/RAND_RR2490.pdf

    [5] Humpel, N., Owen, N., & Leslie, E. (2002). Environmental factors associated with adults’ participation in physical activity: a review[J]. American journal of preventive medicine, 22(3), 188-199.

    [6] Kaczynski, A. T., & Henderson, K. A. (2007). Environmental correlates of physical activity: a review of evidence about parks and recreation[J]. Leisure Sciences, 29(4), 315-354.

    [7] Jared Green. (2015) What Do Seniors Need in Parks? [Z] https://dirt. asla.org/2015/05/06/what-do-seniors-need-in-parks/ (retrieved on 18/12/2018)

    [8] United Nations. Dept. of International Economic and Social Affairs, & United Nations. (2017) [R]. World Population Prospects: 2017 Revision. New York: United Nations.

     

    (整理:赵迪 译:张悦颖)

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