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    走向公园城市——天津大学公园城市实践
    2019-07-19  点击:[]

    走向公园城市——天津大学公园城市实践

    Towards to Park City —— Park City Practice at Tianjin University

     

    曹磊 李发明 王焱 *

    CAO LeiLI FamingWANG Yan

     

    曹磊 / 1962 年生 / / 天津人 / 天津大学建筑学院风景园林系系主任 / 教授、博士生导师/ 研究方向为景观设计规划、景观生态保护与修护

    CAO Lei was born in 1962, the dean of Landscape Architecture Department, School of Architecture, Tianjin University. He is a professor and a doctoral supervisor, focusing on landscape design planning, landscape ecological protection and repair.

     

    李发明 / 1985 年生 / / 辽宁辽阳人 / 天津大学建筑学院风景园林学 / 博士在读 / 研究方向为景观规划设计与景观量化评价

    LI Faming, who was born in 1985, Liaoning Province. He is a student of Landscape Architecture Department, School of Architecture, and Tianjin University. Focusing on landscape design planning and landscape evaluation research.

     

    王焱 / 1980 年生 / / 山东烟台人 / 天津大学建筑学院风景园林学 / 讲师 / 研究方向为景观规划设计、景观美学

    通信作者邮箱(Corresponding author Email: memying@163.com

    WANG Yanwho was born in 1980, Shandong Province. She is a lecturer at School of Architecture, Tianjin University, focusing on landscape planning design and Landscape Aesthetics.

     

    摘要:我国城市绿地建设随着城市的发展历程,经历了由小变大、由少及多的演变过程。中华人民共和国成立以来,以景观绿地为核心的相关城市概念相继提出。本文梳理我国城市绿地建设发展历程上具有代表性的概念,结合“公园城市”的建设现状和发展趋势,介绍天津大学在“公园城市”建设方面的探索与实践。

    关键词:公园城市;城市绿地建设;海绵城市;参与式设计

     

    Abstract: Urban green space construction in China has experienced the process from less to more and from small to large. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the concepts relevant to landscape green space have been proposed. This paper sorts out the concepts of the development of urban green space in China, and combines the construction status and development trend of “park city” to introduce the exploration and practice of the construction of “park city” in Tianjin University.

    Key words: Park City; Urban Green Space Construction; Sponge city; Participatory Design

     

    1 我国城市绿地建设发展进程回顾与总结

    1.1 “园林城市

    1.1.1“园林城市提出背景

    2000年,我国城市化水平从中华人民共和国成立初期的5%涨至36.1%,导致城市生态环境问题日益严重:“全国已经有2/3的城市严重缺水……城市污染加剧,污染种类增多,出现各种‘城市病’……危及城市居民的健康和城市的繁荣进步”[1]

    20世纪90年代钱学森主张:山水城市的设想是中外文化的有机结合,是城市园林和城市森林的结合。社会主义中国21世纪城市构筑应以山水城市为模型,全面改善居民的生活环境[1]。之后提出山水城市的概念,对传承我国的传统园林理念和山水美学,具有一定的前瞻性和时代意义。

    1.1.2“园林城市的提出与评价

    20世纪80年代一些沿海城市自发提出园林城市的绿地目标,1992年,建设部在绿化达标” “全国园林绿化先进城市等政策基础上提出园林城市概念;2000年,建设部颁发《创建国家园林城市实施方案》和《国家园林城市标准》。截至2017年,全国共有园林城市291个、县级市102个、园林县38个。

    “园林城市”建设的基本原则包括生态优先、整体协调发展、功能完善、布局合理、因地制宜等,主要评定指标包括城市绿化覆盖率、城市用地的绿地率、人均公共绿地面积等(表1、表2)。

    1.2 “生态园林城市

    80年代以来,国际社会普遍认为生态城市未来城市的理想模式[2] 1987年江西省宜春市建立了我国第一个生态城市试点,1999年海南省率先获批准建生态省;2004年住建部启动国家生态园林城市创建工作,2006年深圳市成为首个国家生态园林城市示范城市。2012年《国家生态园林城市分级考核标准》出台,形成了遥感测评、专家实地考察、第三方调查评估、市民满意度调查和综合评审相结合的立体考核评估办法。截至2017年我国共有11个国家生态园林城市。

    相比“园林城市”建设,“生态园林城市”判定标准更严格、评判工作更谨慎。只有被评为“国家园林城市”的城市才有资格参评“国家生态园林城市” [3]生态园林城市强调通过生态方法有效减少城市各类污染,使用绿色能源,突出城市生态功能,保护城市生态系统多样性,促进人和自然和谐相处;遵循以人为本、环境优先、系统性、工程带动及因地制宜五大原则。后者是前者在城市绿地建设的高阶目标,也为城市可持续发展指明方向。

    1.3 “森林城市海绵城市

    21世纪开始,城市以内展式和精致化发展为主,开始出现雾霾、内涝等环境问题,所以森林城市、海绵城市的概念相继提出。

    1.3.1 “森林城市发展情况

    2004年起,国家林业局开始申办国家森林城市, 2007年国家林业局发布《国家森林城市评价指标》,2013年国家林业局编制《推进生态文明建设规划纲要( 2013-2020) 》,提出大力开展森林城市创建活动,森林城市成为国家生态文明战略的重要部分。截至2017年底,全国共有137个城市获得国家森林城市称号。

    森林城市发展现状有以下问题:后续发展程序和标准规程有待完善;部分地方政府重申报、轻管理,造成资源浪费等问题;科学研究不足和专业人才相对缺乏造成监管体系不完善,监管力度不够等问题。

    1.3.2 “海绵城市发展情况

    201510月国务院办公厅发布《关于推进海绵城市建设的指导意见》。 2015年和2016年,共有30座城市成为海绵试点城市,国家和地方政府对试点城市给予专项资金补助,要求优先利用植草沟、渗水砖、雨水花园、下沉式绿地等绿色措施来组织城市排水,使70%的降雨就地消纳和利用。

    经过23年的建设,这些海绵城市建设试点目前效果还有许多不尽人意的地方。从国内海绵城市建设和实践情况来看,还存在以下问题:

    1)基础研究滞后与量大面广的工程实践需求相矛盾。缺乏针对不同地域自然降水、下垫面情况和建成项目支撑下的实证研究,很多实践以固化的工程措施来应对不同的海绵城市项目,在一定程度上造成目前部分海绵城市实践的盲目性。

    2)国外经验与我国国情不匹配。目前,我国海绵城市相关实践项目的设计理念和技术措施方面都存在直接照搬国外经验的问题。部分理论方法和技术手段并不适合我国的地域条件。

    3)城市尺度上雨水资源管理与绿地格局研究的不同步。在城市尺度上,缺乏统筹城市绿地系统规划与低影响开发系统的研究及实践。

     

    1 《园林城市评选标准》的绿地建设评定指标

    Table 1 Evaluation Index of Green Space Construction in Evaluation Standard of Garden City

    类 型

    序 号

    指标

    考核要求

    备注

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    、 绿 地 建 设

    (14)

    9

    建成区绿化覆盖率(%

    ≥36%

    10

    建成区绿地率(%)

    ≥31%

    否决项

     

     

    11

    人均公园绿 地面积(㎡/   人)

    人均建设用地小于105㎡的城市

    ≥8.00㎡/人

    考核范围为城市建 成区

    人均建设用地大于等于105㎡的城 市

    ≥9.00㎡/人

     

     

     

     

     

     

    12

     

     

     

     

     

     

    城市绿地公园服务半径覆盖率(%

    ≥80%5000㎡以 上公园绿地按照 500m服务半径考 核,2000-5000

    的公园绿地按照 300m服务半径考   核,历史文化街区 采用1000㎡以上的 公园绿地按照300m 服务半径考核。

     

     

     

     

     

     

    否决项;考核范围 为城市建成区

     

    13

     

    万人拥有综合公园指标

     

    ≥0.06

    考核范围为城市建 成区

    14

    城市建成区绿化覆盖面积中乔灌木所占比率(%

    ≥60%

    (图表来源 :《园林城市评选标准》中华人民共和国住房和城乡建设部)

    (Source: Evaluation Standard of Garden City, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China)

    2 园林城市分地区指标对比

    Table 2 Comparison of Garden City Index by Region

    类别

    地区

    大城市

    中等城市

    小城市

    人均公共绿地

    秦岭淮河以南

    6.5

    7

    8

    秦岭淮河以北

    6.5

    5

    7.5

    绿地率(%)

    秦岭淮河以南

    30

    32

    34

    秦岭淮河以北

    28

    30

    32

     

    绿化覆盖率(%)

    秦岭淮河以南

    35

    37

    39

    秦岭淮河以北

    33

    35

    37

    2 公园城市的概念与理念

    2.1 “公园城市概念产生背景

    我国城市绿地在建设过程中不仅要面对生态环境的问题,同时在其他方面也有很多问题需要解决,可以总结为以下几点:

    1)城市自然生态系统退化,城乡建设用地快速扩张,人工痕迹在不断地吞噬着城市中原有的景观生态环境使城市在整个区域生态系统中的服务功能几乎丧失。

    2)城市自然文化风貌破坏严重,城市建设普遍存在自然山水格局破坏,尤其是文化遗产和传统风貌遗失问题,千城一面现象日益突出。

    3)城乡二元结构仍然明显,快速发展的城市对乡村反哺带动不够,乡村发展动力不足,甚至大量人口外流直接导致一些乡村经济衰退,传统文化日趋消亡。

    综上发现我国在城市化发展过程中的运行模式急需转变和升级,控制土地的大规模扩张,降低以环境破坏为代价的经济增长模式。让城市发展逐渐向以城乡有机结合、科学可持续发展为主转型。“公园城市”这一理念的提出综合考虑了生态修复、城乡建设、文化传承等城市发展需求。

    2.2 “公园城市的概念

    “公园城市”将城乡绿地系统和公园系统、公园化的城乡生态格局和风貌作为城乡发展的基础性、前置性配置要素,把“市民-公园-城市三者关系的优化和谐作为创造美好生活的重要内容,通过提供更多优质生态产品以满足人们对优美生态环境需求,是一种新型城乡人居环境建设理念和理想城市的构建模式。

    2.3 “公园城市的特征

    “公园城市”的提出立足于现阶段城市发展问题,以城市的生态文明建设为引领目标,同时又满足人民对美好生活需求,形成公园形态与城市空间的有机结合,是新时期的可持续发展趋势[4]。公园城市的具体特征分为社会需求、生态需求、城市发展需求、景观需求以及文化需求五个部分。

    在社会需求方面,以大众需求作为核心,资源共享发展。未来城市公园中应以满足人们游憩等多功能活动需求为首要目标,强调人在公园中的中心地位和公园功能的多元性和活力感。

    在生态需求方面,公园城市以生态理念作为核心,倡导可持续发展。公园作为整个公园城市规划的核心网络布局和重要配置要素,强调绿地空间有机网络的结合和串联。

    在城市发展方面,以城乡一体化为核心,协同发展。结合城边乡镇的优厚土地资源和自然资源统筹考虑城乡公园体系,建构城乡绿地体系共生的新型模式。

    在景观需求方面,以优美景观风貌作为核心,创新发展。以自然和文化作为城市转型发展的重要因素,突出公园城市的地域景观特色。

    在文化需求方面,以多元融合为核心,开放式发展。以公园和绿地网络作为公园城市中向人们展示文化、认知历史的绿色平台,强调公园绿地空间中文化功能的营造。

    2.4 公园城市建设的理念

    结合上述对我国城市绿地建设的发展历程的分析和公园城市理念的概念特征解析,可以总结出公园城市的建设应该从以下四个方面展开:

    1)生态保护修复与可持续景观营造

    以生态和可持续的创新思维解析公园城市总体规划途径,以生态格局优化作为核心宗旨,相应地降低城市开发强度;以识别核心生态资源为目标,保护区域性生态安全;以实施城市棕色地块的绿色修复为手段,提升城市生态环境和可持续景观建设;城市生态安全格局的构建应该注重生态空间的管控。

    2)休闲使用功能满足与人性化空间创造

    通过创建多元化的游憩体验以满足城市居民及游客的多方位游憩需求;分层级配置不同功能主题的游憩功能区以满足全年龄段人群的活动需求;形成出家门就能进入公园,让我们的社区被公园所包围,生活在公园里的新理念;建设生态连接绿道,提供非机动出行的便捷性和公园系统间的互联性。

    3)景观遗产保护与地域景观塑造

    以保护和修复城市遗存为主要目的,建设彰显历史的空间载体;以传承地域文化特色为目标,建设文化艺术的宣展场所;满足国际交往功能,展示中国园林的文化自信;以地域景观为特色,提倡多元文化景观共生发展。

    4)美丽乡村建设与城乡协同发展

    通过美丽乡村和乡村旅游建设,增强城乡人口的生态型互通;建设城乡生态联通绿道,维持城乡整体生态系统的平衡;互通城乡各自的特色产品,形成公园城市内部城乡生产生活上的自给自足;以城乡协同为基础,构建以乡村大绿背景为环抱的城乡绿地生态网络。

    3 天津大学的公园城市探索与实践

    3.1 生态保护与可持续景观营造——葫芦岛市海绵城市专项规划

    生态保护修复与可持续景观营造是公园城市建设的重要理念,水资源是城市生态环境可持续发展的重要基础。建设海绵城市是实现城市生态保护修复和可持续景观营造最主要途径之一和前提保证。

    天津大学在葫芦岛市海绵城市专项规划中完成了海绵系统的构建、海绵规划指标体系的确立以及海绵措施的建设指引。综合考虑海绵城市建设目标和场地雨洪管理本底能力两方面而形成的年径流总量控制率分解方法和径流污染物削减率指标分解方法(图1)。

    具体构建流程:首先,通过比较城市中12个组团现状与规划综合径流系数的变化值,了解各组团径流源头管控的压力差异。本着雨洪管控从高压力组团向低压力组团疏解的原则,结合计算获得各组团的年径流总量控制率。

    并进一步获得年径流总量控制率对应的设计降雨强度值,为后续规划设计中海绵措施规模的计算提供依据(图2);其次,提出年径流总量控制率从建设组团到街区、地块的调整值计算方法,以此构建从宏观到微观的海绵城市多级指标体系。最后,通过循环迭代的计算方法,该规划进一步将统计概念上的年径流总量控制率指标转换为用地指标,包括透水铺装率、绿地率、下凹绿地率等(图3),并与用地性质相对应,不仅利于海绵城市理念的落地,又与公园城市的发展要求相适应。

    3.2 公众游憩与人性化空间创造——参与式设计实践

    公园城市建设理念强调满足市民休闲使用功能的需求和人性化景观空间的塑造。参与式设计理念强调在营建活动过程中以大众需求为核心,让未来使用者参与到自身生活环境的设计中去,这与公园城市所倡导的满足大众对城市生活环境基本要求的理念不谋而合。所以,参与式设计是公园城市建设中以人民为中心理念落实的最主要切入点。

    多年来,天津大学在海峡两岸学术交流中,每年都组织参与式设计理念实践的真实课题,例如:迎水里社区花园改造、南翠屏公园儿童活动区景观改造、风湖公园景观改造等等。

    风湖公园位于天津市南开区紧邻风湖里小区与学湖里小区的社区公园。通过多轮与

    居民的现场沟通,总结使用中存在的问题包括:1、景观品质低下且存在安全隐患;2、活动设施老化严重且种类单一;3、动线组织方式不合理,私人占有公共活动空间现象严重;4、日常维护管理不到位,植物缺乏养护等问题。针对活动空间、公共设施、维护管理、植栽绿地、交通流线等方面现状问题进行议题归纳,从而完成公园存在问题的信息整合,为改造方案提供依据与支撑(图4)。

    最终经过居民和社区领导等在现场对多种方案的比选和讨论,完善了最终方案,更换公园活动设施器材、清理现存私人违规堆放物品、清除病虫害严重的植物并进行了植物景观提升、增设了部分夜晚照明设施等(图5、图6)。

    4 结语

    本文通过对我国城市绿地建设中的园林城市、生态园林城市、森林城市、海绵城市、公园城市等概念与发展历程进行详细的解析,提出“公园城市”理念是新时代我国城市绿地建设,乃至整个城市建设的必然趋势。最终结合天津大学的两个实践案例,分析了公园城市理念的落实方式,希望对我国公园城市建设和美好人居环境的营造起到抛砖引玉的作用。

                                                 

    1 年径流总量分解方法

    Figure 1 Decomposition Method of Total Annual Runoff

    2 各个组团径流系数对比

    Figure 2 Comparison of Runoff Coefficients of Each Group

    3 年径流总量控制率指标转换

    Figure 3 Conversion of Annual Total Runoff Control Rate Index

    4 风湖公园信息整合分析图

    Figure 4 Information Integration Analysis Chart of Fenghu Park

    5 参与式调研活动现场

    Figure 5 Scene of Participatory Research Activities

    6 风湖公园民众意见收集分析图

    Figure 6 Analysis Chart of Public Opinion Collection in Fenghu Park

    1 Review and Summary of the Development Process of Urban Green Space Construction in China

    1.1 “Garden City”

    1.1.1 Proposal Background of “Garden City”

    In 2000, China's urbanization level rose from 5% to 36.1%. As a result, the problem of urban ecological environment is increasingly serious: “There is already a serious water shortage in two thirds of the cities in China...Urban pollution is worsening, the types of pollution are increasing, and various ‘urban diseases’ are emerging...Endangering the health of urban residents and the prosperity and progress of the city” [1].

    In the 1990s, Qian Xuesen advocated: “the idea of scenic city is the dynamic integration of Chinese and foreign cultures and the combination of urban gardens and urban forests. Socialist China’s urban construction in the 21st century should take scenic city as a model to comprehensively improve the living environment of residents” [1]. After that, the concept of “scenic city” is proposed, which has certain forward-looking and epochal significance for inheriting China's traditional garden concept and scenic aesthetics.

    1.1.2 Proposal and Evaluation of “Garden City”

    In the 1980s, some coastal cities spontaneously proposed the goal of green space for garden cities, and in 1992, the ministry of construction put forward the concept of “garden city” on the basis of policies such as “Green reaching the standard” and “National advanced city of garden greening”. In 2000, the ministry of construction issued the Implementation Plan for the Establishment of National Garden Cities and the National Garden City Standard. As of 2017, there were 291 garden cities, 102 county-level cities and 38 garden counties.

    “Garden city” 's basic principles includes ecological priority, overall coordinated development, functional perfection, reasonable layout and local conditions. The main evaluation indexes include urban greening coverage rate, urban land green-ing rate, per capita public green space area, green visibility rate and leaf area co-efficient, etc (table 1 and table 2).

    1.2 “Ecological Garden City”

    Since the 1980s, the international community generally believes that “ecological city” is an ideal model for “future city” [2]. In 1987, Yichun City in Jiangxi Province established the first ecological city pilot project in China. In 1999, Hainan was the first to be approved to build an ecological province. In 2004, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development launched the building of the “National Ecological Garden City”. In 2006, Shenzhen became the first national demonstration city for ecological garden cities. In 2012, the National Grading Assessment Standard for Ecological Garden Cities was issued, forming a three-dimensional assessment method combining remote sensing assessment, on-the-spot investigation by experts, third-party investigation and evaluation, citizen satisfaction investigation and comprehensive assessment. As of 2017, China has 11 national ecological garden cities.

    Compared with the construction of “garden city”, the judgment standard of “ecological garden city” is more strict and the judgment work is more careful. Only those who are awarded as “national garden city” are eligible to participate in the evaluation of “national ecological garden city” [3]. “Ecological garden city” puts more emphasis on effectively reducing all kinds of urban pollution through ecological methods, using green energy, highlighting urban ecological functions, protecting the diversity of urban ecological system, and promoting the harmonious coexistence of people and nature. Ecological garden city emphasizes the five principles of people-oriented, environment-first, systematization, engineering-driven and local conditions. The latter is the high-level goal of the former in urban green space construction, and also points out the direction for urban sustainable development.

    1.3 “Forest City” and “Sponge City”

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the city is dominated by in-house development and refined development. Cities began to appear haze, water-logging and other environmental problems, so the concepts of forest city and sponge city have been proposed.

    1.3.1 The Development Situation of “Forest City”

    Starting from 2004, the state forestry administration allows to bid for the national forest city. In 2007, the state forestry administration issued A National Forest City Evaluation Index. In 2013, the state forestry administration compiled the Outline of The Plan for Promoting Ecological Civilization Construction (2013-2020), which proposed to “vigorously carry out activities to create forest cities”. Forest cities have become an important part of the national ecological civilization strategy. By the end of 2017, a total of 137 cities in China had won the title of “national forest city”.

    The development status of forest cities has the following problems: The follow-up development procedures and standard procedures need to be improved; Some local governments lay emphasis on declaration, but pay no attention to management, causing the waste of resources and other problems; The lack of scientific research and professional talents have caused problems such as imperfect regulatory systems and inadequate supervision.

    1.3.2 The Development Situation of “Sponge City”

    In October 2015, the General Office of the State Council issued the Guiding Opinions on the Construction of Sponge City. In 2015 and 2016, a total of 30 cities became sponge pilot cities, and the state and local governments gave special fund subsidies to pilot cities, requiring priority use of “greening” measures such as grass planting ditch, seepage brick, rainwater garden and sunken green space to organize urban drainage, so that 70% of rainfall could be consumed and utilized on site.

    After 2~3 years of construction, the pilot construction of these sponge cities is still unsatisfactory. From the perspective of the construction and practice of domestic sponge cities, the following problems still exist:

    (1) The lag of basic research contradicts the demand of engineering practice with large quantity and wide range. There is a lack of empirical research on the natural precipitation and underlying conditions in different regions and the support of the completion project. Many practices adopt stereotyped engineering measures to deal with different sponge city projects, which to some extent leads to the blindness of current practices in some sponge cities;

    (2) Foreign experience does not match China’s national conditions. At present, there are problems in the design concepts and technical measures of China’s sponge city related practice projects that directly copy foreign experience. Some theoretical methods and technical means are not suitable for the geographical conditions of our country;

    (3) The research of rainwater resources management and green space pattern on urban scale is not synchronized. On the urban scale, there is a lack of research and practice on the overall planning of urban green space system and the low-impact development system.

    2 Concepts and Ideas of Park City

    2.1 The Background of the Idea of “Park City”

    In the process of building urban green space in China, we not only face the problems of ecological environment, but also can summarize the following points in other aspects:

    (1) The continuous expansion of urban and rural construction land leads to serious damage to the ecosystem and environment in the city. Artificial traces are constantly devouring the original landscape ecological space in the city, making the city almost lose its service function in the whole regional ecosystem;

    (2) The natural cultural landscape of the city is seriously damaged. The destruction of natural landscape pattern is common in urban construction, especially the loss of cultural heritage and traditional features. The phenomenon of “All cities are the same” is increasingly prominent;

    (3) The urban-rural dual structure is still obvious. The fast-growing cities are not enough to promote the rural areas. Rural development lacks momentum. Even a large number of population outflow directly lead to the recession of some rural economy. And traditional culture is dying out.

    In summary, it is found that China’s operation mode in the process of urbanization is in urgent need of transformation and upgrading. We need to control the large-scale expansion of land and reduce the government’s economic growth model at the cost of environmental damage. We will gradually transform urban development into one that focuses on the organic integration of urban and rural areas and on scientific and sustainable development. The proposal of the concept of “park city” takes into account the needs of ecological restoration, urban and rural construction, cultural inheritance and other urban development.

    2.2 The Concept of “Park City”

    “Park city” takes the park system, green space system, ecological pattern, urban and rural landscape and other factors in the city as the basis and precondition of park city construction. It gives full consideration to the relationship among citizens, parks and cities. Through the connection of the urban park network, providingpeople with a better life as the main content, it satisfies people’s yearning for a better living environment and an ideal city. Park city can also change its pattern with the increasing environmental demands of people and form the corresponding organic urban green space pattern.

    2.3 The Characteristics of “Park City”

    The proposal of “park city”, based on the current urban development issues, takes the ecological civilization construction of the city as the leading goal, and at the same time meets the people’s needs for a better life, forming an organic combination of park form and urban space. It is the sustainable development trend in the new era [4]. The specific characteristics of park city are divided into five parts : social demand, ecological demand, urban development demand, landscape demand and cultural demand.

    In the aspect of social demand, it takes the public demand as the core, with resources sharing development. In the future, the primary goal of the park city should be to meet people’s needs for recreation and other multifunctional activities. And it should emphasize the central position of people in the park and the diversity and vitality of the functions of the park.

    In the aspect of ecological demand, park city has an ecological idea as the core and sustainable development. As the core network layout and important configuration elements of the whole park urban planning, the park emphasizes the organic network combination and connection of green space.

    In the aspect of urban development, the integration of urban and rural areas is the core and they shall develop in a coordinated way. We should combine the favorable land resources and natural resources of the towns and villages in the city to form the overall planning of the urban and rural park system, and construct a new model of symbiosis between the urban and rural green space system.

    In the aspect of landscape demand, we shall take the beautiful landscape style as the core and develop creatively. We shall use the landscape image to define the differences between the future cities, creating the park city each with its own characteristics of the landscape.

    In the aspect of cultural need, we should focus on multicultural integration and open development. Taking the park and green space network as the green platform for people to display culture and understand history in the park city, it emphasizes the creation of cultural functions in the park green space.

    2.4 The Construction Idea of Park City

    Combined with the analysis of the development history of urban green space construction in China and the analysis of the conceptual characteristics of the idea of the park city, it can be concluded that the practice and implementation of park cities should be carried out from the following four aspects:

    (1) Ecological protection restoration and sustainable landscape construction

    To analyze the overall planning approach of park city with ecological and sustainable innovative thinking, to take the optimization of ecological pattern as the core purpose, and to correspondingly reduce the intensity of urban development; to protect regional ecological security with the goal of identifying core ecological resources; improve urban ecological environment and sustainable landscape construction by implementing landscape restoration; the construction of urban ecological security pattern should pay attention to the control of ecological space.

    (2) Leisure use function satisfaction and humanized space creation

    By creating a diversified recreation experience ,we should meet the multidimensional recreation needs of urban people and tourists; arrange it in different level for the recreational areas with different functional themes to meet the activity needs of all age groups; form the idea of going into the park when out of the house, let our community be surrounded by the park, and live in the park; and build ecological connecting green way to provide the convenience of non-motorized travel and the interconnection between park systems.

    (3) Landscape heritage protection and regional landscape shaping

    With the main purpose of protecting and repairing urban remains, we shall builda space carrier that highlights history; We shall take the inheritance of regional cultural characteristics as the goal to build a cultural and artistic exhibition venue; We shall perform the function of international communication and show the cultural confidence of Chinese gardens. We shall feature regional landscape, and advocate the symbiotic development of multicultural landscape.

    (4) The construction of beautiful countryside and the coordinated development of urban and rural areas

    By creating beautiful villages and rural tourism construction, we should enhance the ecological connectivity of urban and rural population; build urban and rural ecological link green way to maintain the balance of the overall urban and rural ecological system; and interchange the characteristic products of urban and rural areas to form self-sufficiency in production and living in urban and rural areas within the park city; On the basis of coordination between urban and rural areas, we should establish an ecological network of urban and rural green space surrounded by the great green background of the countryside.

    3 Exploration and Practice of Park City in Tianjin University

    3.1 Ecological Protection and Sustainable Landscape Construction—Special Plan for Sponge City of Huludao City

    Ecological protection and restoration and sustainable landscape construction are the important concepts of park city construction, and water resources are the important foundation of sustainable development of urban ecological environment. The construction of sponge city is one of the most important ways and prerequisite guarantee to realize urban ecological protection and restoration and sustainable landscape construction.

    Tianjin University completed the construction of sponge system, the calcula-tion of sponge planning index system and the construction guidelines of sponge measures in the special planning of Huludao sponge city. The decomposition method of annual total runoff control rate and the decomposition method of runoff pollutant reduction rate index are formed by comprehensively considering two aspects of sponge city construction objectives and site rain flood management background capacity ( figure 1 ).

    Specific construction process: Firstly, by comparing the current situation of 12 groups in the city with the change value of the planned comprehensive runoff coefficient, we can understand the pressure difference of runoff source control in each group. Based on the principle of “ relief from high-pressure groups to low-pressure groups in flood control”, the annual total runoff control rate of each group is obtained by combining calculation methods. Furthermore, the design rainfall intensity value corresponding to the annual runoff total control rate is further obtained to provide the basis for calculation of sponge measure scale in subsequent planning and design ( figure 2 ). Secondly, the calculation method of the adjustment value of the annual runoff total control rate from the construction group to the blocks and plots is put forward, so as to construct a multilevel index system of sponge city from macro to micro. Finally, through the calculation method of cyclic iteration, the plan further converts the statistical concept of annual runoff total control rate index into land use index, including permeable pavement rate, greening rate, percentage of sunken green space, etc. (figure 3), and corresponds to the nature of land use, which is not only conducive to the landing of sponge idea, but also suitable for the development requirements of urban parks.

    3.2 Public Recreation and Humanized Space Creation—Participatory Design Practice

    In the concept of park city construction, emphasis is placed on meeting the needs of citizens’ leisure use function and the shaping of humanized landscape space. The concept of participatory design emphasizes taking the needs of the public as the core in the process of construction activities, allowing future users to participate in the design of their own living environment, which coincides with the concept of meeting the basic requirements of the public for the urban living environment advocated by park cities. Therefore, participatory design is the most important breakthrough point to implement the people-oriented concept in the construction of park cities.

    For many years, Tianjin University has organized real topics of participatory design concept practice in academic exchanges across the Taiwan Strait, such as: the renovation of Yingshui Community Garden, the renovation of Nancuiping Park’s children’s activity area, and the renovation of Fenghu Park’s landscape, etc. Fenghu Park is located in a community park in Nankai District of Tianjin, which is close to Fenghuli District and Xuehuli District. Through several rounds of on-site communication with residents, the problems in use are summarized as follows: 1. The landscape quality is low and there are potential safety hazards; 2. The aging of activity facilities is serious and the types are single. 3. The organization of the movement line is unreasonable and the phenomenon of private occupation of public activity space is serious. 4. The daily maintenance management is not in place, the lack of maintenance of plants and other issues. Based on the activ-ity space, public facilities, maintenance and management, planting green space, traffic flow lines and other aspects, we should summarize the current situation and issues to complete the information integration of the park and provide basis and support for the renovation plan (figure 4).

    In the end, through the comparison and discussion of various schemes by resi-dents and community leaders at the scene, the final plan was improved and, the consensus was determined to replace the park’s facilities and equipment, clean up the existing private illegally stacked items, remove serious plant diseases and insect pests and strengthen the later maintenance, and add a night lighting system to ensure the safety of night activities (figures 5 and 6).

    4 Conclusion

    Through a detailed analysis of the development process of China’s urban green space construction, such as park city, ecological park city, forest city, sponge city, park city. This proves that the concept of “park city” is the general trend of urban green space construction in our country and even the whole city construction in the new era. Finally, combining with two practical cases of Tianjin University, this paper analyzes the implementation mode of park city concept, hoping to play a role in the construction of park city and the construction of beautiful living environment in our country.

     

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    (整理:赵迪 译:傅美彩)

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