Open Green, Urban Community La­­ndscapes Created by Social Groups and Communities
Su-Hsin Lee，Po-Hung Liu
李素馨 /1959 年生 / 女 / 台湾师范大学地理学系 / 教授 / 研究方向为环境与景观规划设计、观光游憩规划、都市与小区空间安全性与环境设计的关联研究
Su-Hsin Lee was born in 1959, female. She is the professor of Department of Geography, National Taiwan Normal University. Research directions are the relationship among environment and landscape planning and design, sightseeing and recreation planning, and security and environmental design for urban and community space.
刘柏宏 /1961 年生 / 男 / 台湾大学园艺暨景观学系 / 兼任讲师 /
Po-Hung Liu was born in 1961, male. He is the part-time
lecturer of Department of Horticulture and Landscape of Taiwan University. Research directions are participatory design, community construction, environmental planning and landscape design.
摘要：台北市市政府推动“Open Green 打开绿生活”计划，通过公开征集的方式，鼓励有意自主改善生活环境的社群与社区提案，打造新公共空间，创造可以产生更多交流的公共领域。计划的两项原则为：坚持对多元使用者的包容态度和尽可能创造促进交流的空间形式；三个方面的开放意义为：打开社群边界、开放固定使用和开放小系统循环基础。打开绿生活计划使得社区朝向高龄友善、生态永续与创新共享社群的方向发展。
Abstract: The Taipei City Government has promoted “Open Green” program, through public calls to encourage communities and social groups to submit proposals for their living environments. "Open" aims to establish new public spaces, and create public sphere for more exchanges. There are two principles: An inclusive to diverse user groups; dynamic in space and format, and three open meanings: opening the community boundary, opening fixed purposes, and open circles and microsystems. Through the policy of opening up the green life, the community is oriented towards an age-friendly, eco-sustainable, and innovative community.
Key words: comprehensive community development; public sphere; sustainability
台北市市政府自 1996 年推动“地区环境改造计划”以来，鼓励社区改善邻里公共环境，打造由下而上的机制。然而，社区居民与政府部门之间因为想法不同，存在沟通的困难；社会工作流程复杂及解决社区问题难度大，让社区发展计划也变得更复杂。因此，市政府 1999 年首创“社区规划师制度”；2000 年开办“青年社区规划师培训计划”，招募并培训社区的青年规划师； 2012 年-2014 年以“储备社区规划师”为目标开展三年期计划；2015 年以“社区营造人才培训计划”促进社区营造基础概念的普及，培养学员实际参与计划并研拟小区规划的可行方案。2018 年，市政府将都市更新、整建维护、社区营造、街区组织培力及活化等相关课程资源及案例进行整合，推出“都市再生学苑”。政府通过多年培训，鼓励空间规划专业者走入社区，增加不同社群间的对话，协助社区提案改善居住区环境，让社区营造由早期仅是对空间环境的关注，逐渐扩展到社会人文、弱势关怀、文化保护甚至是公共卫生等众多议题，从对“对象”的关注转变成对于“人”的关怀。自2014 年，由台北市市政府推动“Open Green 打开绿生活”计划，通过公开征集的方式，鼓励有意自主改善生活环境的社群与社区提案。作者有幸参与社区提案甄审与陪伴计划，遂将多年的社区培育计划做重点介绍，说明“改造空间环境，需要先改造人与自然的关系”。
回顾四年间（2014年 - 2017 年），“Open Green 打开绿生活”计划拓展至台北市的大街小巷，共计完成61处空间改造案例。面对人口老龄化的现状，2017 年政府以高龄友善为主题，通过自主提案的生活环境改善案例，打造绿色人行通道、无障碍坡道、口袋花园、休憩亭、街道家具、疗愈森林等友善服务设施，由积极且充满信心的社区社群协力合作，提出空间改造议题，并自主维护管理。以多样多元的“绿手法”，通过社群协力关怀地区人文及高龄者需求，为台北市写下社区营造的新篇章。
“Open Green 打开绿生活”计划的目标是打造新公共空间，创造出可以产生更多交流的公共领域。在参与机制的联结下，通过共同营造的过程消除人际间原本疏离的隔阂感，创造具有共鸣感的场所。计划有两项原则，其一是坚持对多元使用者的包容态度，第二是尽可能创造促进交流的空间形式。这两项原则的目的在于让社群可以联结社区的在地关系，因此，空间的改造不再是一成不变地将设施以旧换新，而是关注使用族群的需求，注重设施的亲和力、活泼性、创造性与多元性等。因此，将人与人的关系串联起来，使空间与空间无缝衔接，人与空间重新有了对话的机会。计划所推动的新公共空间是社会整体变革中，许多小系统循环改变的基础。
综合而言，Open Green 打造新公共空间，包括三个方面的开放意义（图1）:
图 1 Open Green 三个方面的开放意义
Figure 1 Three Open Meanings of the Open Green Program
此计划以步行 15 分钟、500 m 的生活圈为范围，平均可以找到 30 种以上有潜力的、可以被重新改造的空间类型。生活圈随着社群支持网络的密集程度灵活移动其原本僵固的边界。Open Green 关心日常生活空间，以整体性的角度去挖掘更多可能性，鼓励社群提议各式各样的公共开放空间改造，包括屋顶、围墙、垂直立面、庭院、零散空间、公私有闲置空地或房舍界面、水路纹理、老树周边等。许多原本荒置的、封闭的、老旧的或低度利用的空间基地，因为有了一批专业规划者的关注，被融入了更多的创意，营造与编织起具有共鸣感的新公共生活。
图 2 三度空间的绿化
Figure 2 The Greening of Three-dimensional Space
周末一早，文山区明兴小区的数十位老人早已拿着锄头、背着水壶“上山”去了。他们是一支生态志愿者队，喜欢自然生态环境，经过长期观察后发现了一处珍贵的脚踏石，就在步行可到达的后山里。萤火虫、穿山甲、蜻蜓、青蛙等多样的生态物种，都是与志愿者一起保护山林的好朋友。Open Green 计划让原本布满水泥硬铺面的山径蜕变为一处生态解说教育现场。志愿者参与到环境改造的工作中，一边敲除水泥，一边将拆除后的废弃物重新再利用；还串联了明兴小区的关怀中心，将围墙拆除以提升视觉通透性，废弃砖石循环再利用后成为手作步道的铺设材料。渐渐地，原本杂乱的社区灰空间焕然一新，成为居民们引以为荣的生态亮点，居民们携手迈进生态小区的梦想家园（图 5～7）。
4.3 创新与共享——龙泉宿舍 “芒果香草园”
大安区师范大学的街区内，有一处长期闲置的房屋，设计团队集合古风里办公处和居民的力量，秉持高龄友善的理念，将环境改造得焕然一新，一扫过往阴暗潮湿的印象。在 2016 年大年初五新春团拜的时节，团队邀请退休已久的爷爷奶奶，面对面地说明共享空间的正面效益，许多高龄者回忆起小区生活的点滴，也提出共享社区的梦想，于是愿景逐渐凝聚起来。项目以园区的老芒果树和香草命名。空间共享也促进了高龄者的交流，经常可以看见邻居驻足话家常，原本冷漠的巷弄，聚集起了许多活力与希望（图 8～9）。
自邀请 NGO 参与设计工作以来，许多来自不同地缘性的社群团体也因为认同社区改造而参与实践，进而逐渐摸索出如何在生活圈联结不同的社群，在不同的角落，共创共享生活环境模式。例如原本在大安区师范大学附近的锦安里屋顶菜园，通过行动倡议介入，带动了台北市“田园城市”的形成雏形。沈河区的营造理念在真实的生活场域逐步修正，转化十年累积的实践经验，最终让 Open Green 有了丰富完整的理念论述与操作规范，让社群协力、居民参与生活环境改造的计划不仅有了硬件改善，还带入软体经营维护的概念。
Open Green 的核心精神就是通过各种“打开”来实践“多样的绿生活”，以创意的空间改造生产历程向外开放的社会环境，试图改变过往偏重消费状况下的硬件条件，及单一依赖特定地缘社区参与的模式。通过社群多样的实践案例，反映出了“城市共生”与“新公共空间”的内涵，创造出可以产生更多交流的公共领域。在参与机制的作用下，让社群可以连接地方生活的协力关系，从不同协力模式的实验过程导向更包容、多元使用的空间改造。当人与人的关系，空间与空间的动线被衔接起来时，人与空间便重新有了对话的机会。Open Green 所推动的新公共空间，可视为是社会整体变革中“社会修补”的基础。因为群与聚的力量重新连接，让失落的空间得到修补，让群众愿景启动并经营扎根，让僵化的制度规范重新对话激发创新，让过往追求速成建设的材料工法被生态复育所取代。
Green 不是字面上的“绿”或单纯的植栽“绿化”，而是将生活空间视为一个连续的整体，从生产、生态、社会到倡议性的主题，都可以用 Green 的概念来引发社区居民共同讨论与投入，包括都市议题中倡议的绿、社区型产业的绿、人与自然生态的绿、关注社会福利与弱势需求的绿、生活中小系统循环的绿等。以绿之名，带动公共的讨论，借此充实都市再生的内涵，具有兼顾社会与自然多重“生态修复”的意义。
图 3 改造前的转角空间
Figure 3 Corner Space Before Renovation
图 4 营造停留、等候时交流的休憩空间
Figure 4 Create a Rest Space for Communication While Staying and Waiting
图 5 生态志愿者凿除后山的水泥铺面
Figure 5 Ecological Volunteer Team Chiseled out the Concrete Pavement in the Back Mountain
1 To Transformation the Space, First Transform the Human Relations
In recent years, the landscapes of Taipei City are gradually changing: the deserted land suddenly has turned into a vanilla garden full of fragrant plants. In the lonely alleys, some excited and enthusiastic young groups have joined the teams of creative transformation. In the space after the demolition of the old houses, the residents of the residential area have participated in the temporary renovation. Even more, many non-governmental units take the initiative to lower the height of the walls to make their vision wider and safer, or change railings to have gaps between them then allow sunlight, wind and green view to flow or spread more freely. Residents or more users will participate in opening up the green space in the communities and open up the possibility of more green life!
The Taipei Government has been promoting the "Regional Environmental Reconstruction Plan" since 1996, encouraging communities to improve the neighborhood public environment, and beginning to outline the "bottom-up" mechanism. However, communication difficulties have existed between community residents and government departments due to different languages and ideas. Due to the complexity of society and the increasing difficulties in solving community problems, community development plans have become more and more complex.Therefore, the municipal government initiated the "Community Planner System" in 1999, launched the "Youth Community Planner Training Plan" in 2000, recruited and trained community talents, handled the three-year plan with the "Reserve Community Planner Training Plan" from 2012 to 2014, promoted the popularization of the basic concept of community construction with the "Talent Training Plan for Community Construction" in 2015, and trained students to actually participate and develop feasible plans for the communities. In 2018, relevant curriculum resources and cases such as urban renewal, revamp and maintenance, community construction, strengthening and activation of neighborhood organizations will be integrated to launch the "Urban Regeneration Academy". Through years of training more than 1,000 community preparatory workers, spatial planning professionals are encouraged to enter the communities, dialogs among different social groups are increased, community proposals are assisted to improve the residential environment, so that the "Community Construction" gradually expands from the focus on the early space environment to many issues such as social humanities, weak care, cultural preservation, and even public health, from the focus on "objects" to the concern for "people". Since 2014, the Taipei City Government has promoted “Open Green” program, through public calls to encourage communities and social groups to submit proposals. The authors have the opportunity to participate in the screening and review of the community proposals and join in the accompanying plan. In addition, the authors will lay emphasis on the multi-year community training plan, stating that "transforming the space environment, transforming the human relations first".
图 6 明兴小区关怀中心的围墙敲除后，材料再利用
Figure 6 The Walls of Mingxing Community Being Knocked out and the Materials Being Reused
图 7 结合年长者照顾与生态理念的社区服务中心
Figure 7 Community Service Center Combining Elderly Care and Ecological Concept
图 8 利用新春团拜的时机，与年长者分享社区计划
Figure 8 Using the Occasion of Visits of the Spring Festival to Share New Community Plans with the Elderly Residents
图 9 芒果香草园唤醒了居民的记忆，也分享了绿意
Figure 9 Mango Vanilla Garden Retaining the Memory of Residents and Sharing the Green View
2 Open Green Taipei
Due to the continuous cultivation of community construction power, the communities have a group of people who care about them and integrate creativity into the environment to respond to the diverse elements of the city and create a more livable and comfortable community space. The space transformation of each base has been completed by various communities with different interests. The transformation process keeps an open and inclusive attitude through a large amount of communication and companionship to welcome social space self-construction work. At the same time, community planners, space professionals, colleges and universities and other units also cherish the practice fields for community training. Many communities have proposed imagination of new life, space design, renovation of hiring workers and purchasing materials, or the hands-on practice, because of the open participation mechanism, thus continuously promoting the quality of Taipei's living space.
Looking back over the past four years (2014-2017), the "Open Green" program has expanded to almost every corner of Taipei City, completing a total of 61 cases of space renovation. In the face of the advent of an aging society, in 2017, with the theme of age-friendly, numerous happy and confident community social groups have worked together to propose the issue of space renovation and made autonomous maintenance and management through different self-promoted cases of living environment improvement, for many wonderful age-friendly service functions and facilities such as green pedestrian corridors , barrier-free ramps, "pocket" gardens, rest kiosks, street furniture, healing forests, etc. With a variety of "green methods" and through the communities' concerted efforts to care for the region's humanities and the needs of the elderly, it has written a new chapter for community construction of Taipei City.
The goal for "open" is to create "new public spaces" and create public sphere for more exchanges. Under the connection of the participation mechanism, the original alienated feeling among people will be eliminated through the process of joint construction, and a place with resonance feeling will be created. The approach for "open" has two principles, one is the inclusive attitude towards diverse users, and the second is to promote dynamic space and format as much as possible. The purpose of the two principles is to enable the social groups to connect with the geographical relationship of the communities. Therefore, the transformation of space is not to rigidly replace old facilities with new ones, but to care about the needs, affinity, liveliness, creativity and pluralism of the communities. So, the human relation is connected, the dynamic lines of space and space are connected, and there is interaction between people and space, which make them have a new opportunity for dialogs. The "new public space" promoted by Open Green is the basis for many circles and microsystems in the overall social transformation.
In summary, the "Open Green" program creates new public spaces, which includes three open meanings (figure 1):
(1) Open the Boundaries of Social Groups: Break through the administrative boundaries divided by "li" and connect various communities to create inclusive community space.
(2) Open Fixed Purposes: Combine community consensus and creativity, develop diverse new spaces and life imagination, and create friendly spaces.
(3) Open the Basis of Circles and Microsystems: Take the mechanism of developing, operating, preserve and manage with users, and maintain open to various issues and continue deep cultivation.
In this plan, you can find an average of more than 30 potential space types that can be changed again in the life circle, whose range is you walk 15 minutes or you walk 500 m. The size of the life circle changes with the move of the density of the social support network, so that the originally rigid boundaries change. The "Open Green" program cares about the daily living space, explores more possibilities from a more integral perspective, and encourages the social groups to propose various programs of renovations for public open spaces: Including roofs, walls, vertical facades, courtyards, lonely places, public and private vacant spaces or (houses) boundaries, waterway textures, surroundings of old trees, etc. Many originally deserted, closed, old or underutilized space bases have become more involved in discussions and mutual tolerance due to the concern of a group of people, thus building a new public life with a sense of resonance.
3 How Can Actions Bring about Changes
In order to promote the vision of a larger scale and hierarchy, the plan needs to amass energy from a small place. The "Open Green" program acts as a platform for counseling. From the perspective of life, it connects microsystem space to improve and foster innovation energy in the region and integrates relevant policies, plans or resources. For the old built-up areas, a set of spatial transformation mechanism applicable to Taipei metropolitan area will be promoted and implemented to re-combine the land relationship between the innovative social groups and the communities. Through the open proposals, the adjustment of counseling programs to the implementation of actual space transformation, the communities are helped to familiarize itself with the processes and methods of public participation, so that participation in public affairs becomes the culture of community space construction, and the initiative and creativity of the social groups are seen to transform the framework of existing community space (figure 2).
From the implementation plan of 61 proposals of living space, we have seen the new value behind various community actions. The content of the proposals should include the space renovation points, current problems, renovation features, etc. The space should be public and open to a certain extent, and there should be no restriction on the types of public and private lands. The basic condition is to provide the public with open use and promise to maintain and manage for at least five years. After the selection mechanism of the committee, the selected list and the approved implementation cost should be announced. The committee refers to the rationality of the proposal content and budgeting to give actual funds, such as space size, renovation projects, materials, conditions of things above ground, facilities, drainage, planting, labor force, etc. From concept development, space renovation and creative activities, various thematic social groups and social groups with geographical relations are encouraged to cooperate and make proposals to complete the renovation plans by employing workers and purchasing materials. The operation process can be briefly summarized as five steps: Finding space, contacting the landlord, communicating with the community, actual transformation and attracting groups to go to play. The transformation content is not limited to the single greening, and can list the prior starting point for the transformation according to the problems faced by the actual development of the community. Basically it can be classified into three types:
(1) Ageing Friendly: Pay attention to the elderly users, who are limited in mobility and whose range of activity is mainly the community space. Through communication and interaction, understand their needs and create a relieved and comfortable walking environment in the community.
(2) Ecology and Sustainability: Examine the community space with the awareness of environmental protection and apply ecological and friendly construction methods. There is no concept of waste in the base. Everything can be discussed and reconfigured to find the most suitable reuse way.
(3) Innovation and Sharing: The new community public space is no longer limited to traditional residents' activities. It is designed with organic and flexible space to create openness and inclusiveness and support more diverse social groups to participate in the operation.
4.1 Open the Wall and Build a Friendly Space for Senior Citizens and Ethnic Groups-A Tea Room for Senior Citizens under the Rule of Law
There is a blind corner of traffic security on Tonghua Street in Da 'an District, which is located at the turning. The high wall around the turning blocks the vision. The senior volunteer who has served as the li head for more than 30 years is determined to improve this problem, hoping to provide a place for elders to relax, socialize and eat together. Through the cooperation with the curriculum of a university's department of landscape, many improvement schemes are proposed, such as knocking out the walls, converting the lowered walls into seats for rest, planting camellias for residents to take part in to care for, etc. Every afternoon, here is full of vitality. There is no longer any estrangement between neighbors and they can share the important and little things of life in this social space with ease. However, this small action has greatly improved the problems of traffic and dead corners of public security. Residents and neighbors have jointly discussed and independently built tea rooms for the elderly to bring new atmosphere to the communities (figure 3-4).
4.2 Ecological and Sustainable Community-Mount Mamingtan, Wenshan District
In the early morning of the weekend, dozens of elderly people in the Mingxing Community of Wenshan District went up the mountain with hoes and kettles on their backs. They were a group of ecological volunteers. They all liked the natural ecological environment. After long-term observation, they found a precious ecological island in the back mountain within walking distance. In the forest protected by the volunteers, fireflies, pangolins, dragonflies, frogs and other various ecological species are all good friends of the volunteers. Through the "Open Green" program, the mountain path originally paved with cement has been transformed into an ecological explanation and education environment. Volunteers participated in the environmental renovation work, knocking out cement and reusing the removed waste. They also connected the care and attention center of Mingxing Community, removing the walls to widen the view, and recycling the waste brick and stone to make them become paving materials for hand-made walkways. Gradually, many originally cluttered gray spaces of communities have taken on a new look and become bright spots of pride for residents, thus residents marching into the dream home of ecological communities. (figure 5-7)
4.3 Innovation and Sharing-The Mango Vanilla Garden in Longquan Dormitory
In the neighborhood of the life circle of the Da 'an District Normal University, there was a long-term idle state-owned house. The Green Dot team combined with the strength of people available, such as the offices of Gufeng li, and upheld the concept of age-friendly, hoping to clean up the environment and sweep away the impression for the place of dark and humid in the past. On January 5th of the lunar calendar of 2016, grandparents who retired for a long time were invited to explain the positive benefits of opening up the space face to face. Many people recalled the life in the community and proposed the dream of sharing the future of the base with the community residents. As a result, the vision has gradually been consolidated. Named "Mango Vanilla Garden" after the old mango trees and vanil-las in the park, the opening of the garden share the green view and promote the exchange of hobbies among the elderly. It is often seen that neighbors stop and talk about everyday things. Originally indifferent alleyways gather many dreams and hopes (figure 8-9).
Since the beginning of inviting NGO to participate in design workshops, many action groups with different regional relations have gradually explored how to connect different social groups in the life circle and create a living environment model in different corners by identifying communities and putting into practice by themselves. For example, the rooftop vegetable garden in Jin 'an li, near Da 'an District Normal University, was intervened through action initiatives, which led to the embryonic form of Taipei's "pastoral city" policy. Shen He District's construction concept has been gradually revised and transformed into ten years of accumulated practical experience in the real life field, finally giving the "Open Green" program rich and complete concept discussion and operation specifications. Community cooperation and residents' participation in the transformation of living environment have not only improved the hardware, but also brought in the concept of operation and maintenance of the software.
The core spirit of the "Open Green" program is to practice "diversified green life" through all kinds of ways of "opening", to transform the production process with creative space and open the linked society to the outside, and to try to change the past pattern of hardware transformation under the consumer society being put particular emphasis on and relying solely on the participation of specific geographical communities. Through the practical cases of various social groups, the connotation of "urban symbiosis" and "new public space" is reflected, and create public sphere for exchanges. Under the involvement of the participation mechanism, the social groups can be linked to the cooperative relationship of local life, and the experimental process of different cooperative modes can lead to more inclusive and multi-use space transformation. When human relations and the dynamic lines of space and space are connected, there is interaction between people and space, which make them have a new opportunity for dialogs. The "new public space" promoted by the "Open Green" program can be regarded as the basis of "social repair" in the overall social change. Because of the reconnection of the gathered forces between the groups and the clans, the lost space will be repaired, and the public vision will be activated, operated, and taken root. The rigid system and norms will be reviewed to stimulate innovation for both of them, and the materials and construction methods that only pursued rapid construction in the past will be replaced by ecological rehabilitation.
"Green" is not literally "Green" or simply planting the "green" plants, but regards living space as a continuous whole. From production, ecology, society to the theme of initiative, the concept of "Green" can be used to trigger community residents to discuss and invest together. Including the green advocated in urban issues, the green of community-based industries, the green of human and natural ecology, the green of paying attention to social welfare and vulnerable needs, the green of microsystems and circulation in life, etc. In the name of green, it will stimulate public discussion and enrich the connotation of urban rehabilitation, which has the significance of taking into account the multiple "ecological restoration" in social and natural.
 Bradshaw, T. K., (2000). Complex community development projects: collaboration, comprehensive programs, and community coalitions in complex society. Community Development Journal, Volume 35, Issue 2, 1 April 2000, Pages 133–145.
 Palazzo, D & Steiner, F. (2011). Urban Ecological Design: A process for Regenerative Places. Island Press. NW Washington.
 方定安 (2018). Open Green 打开绿生活─台北生活空间改造／逆龄城市 . 台北市都市更新处 .