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    都市设计策略下的公园城市
    2019-07-19  点击:[]

    都市设计策略下的公园城市

    Park City under Urban Design Strategy

    简伃贞

    Yu-Chen Chie

     

    简伃贞 / 1969 年生 / / 中兴大学水土保持学系博士 / 朝阳科技大学景观及都市设计系副教授、硕士生导师 / 研究方向为景观设计、都市设计、景观工程

    通讯作者邮箱(Corresponding author Email):ycchien@cyut.edu.tw

    Yu-Chen Chienwas born in 1969. She is an Urban Design Review Committee Member, a Ph.D. in Department of Soil and Water Conservation of Zhongxing University. She is an associate Professor, and master tutor in Department of Landscape and Urban Design of Chaoyang University of Technology. Her research directions include landscape design, urban design, and landscape engineering.

    摘要:台中市推动都市设计制度已经有 20 年,近 7 年来,更以都市设计空间大奖的竞赛给予都市设计审议下的优秀作品以实质肯定,打造台中市成为以人为本的宜居花园城市。都市设计的本质在于营造优质的都市生活空间,其三项核心策略为由转变内聚式私人空间为友善公共资源、人工基盘绿色建筑思维和都市过渡性开发手法。本文将追踪 2015 年至 2018 年完成都市设计审议并荣获都市设计空间大奖的作品,论述如何以开放空间、屋顶花园、垂直绿化、公共艺术等都市设计手段创造街道绿带,进一步串联绿地系统,营造能让建筑与自然对话的公园城市。

    关键词:都市设计;花园城市;都市设计空间大奖

    Abstract: The government of Taichung city has been promoting the urban design system for 20 years. In the past seven years, the government has held the competition of "Urban Space Design Prize" to give positive affirmation to outstanding works under the urban design review to make Taichung city a people-oriented livable garden city. The essence of urban design is to create high-quality urban living space. Its three core strategies are to transform cohesive private space into friendly public resources, the thought of green buildings built on the artificial foundation and the method of urban transitional development. Besides, to realize the strategies, we can track the works that have completed urban design review and won the "Urban Space Design Prize" from 2015 to 2018, discuss how to create street greenbelts by urban design methods such as open space, roof garden, vertical greening and public art, further connect green space systems, and create a park city with architecture and nature existing harmoniously.

    Key words: urban design garden city Urban Space Design Prize

     

    引言

    都市设计的主要目的在于营造高品质的都市生活。台中市以文化城市自居[1],近年来,致力于将城市打造为以人为本的宜居公园城市,更因永续及生态的全球思维,推动了公园城市的发展趋势。台中市亦连续多年举办都市设计空间大奖,对都市设计优秀作品予以肯定。

    台中市都市设计审议是一个实务且具高度挑战性的都市建设对话平台,由约 20 位委员组成,成员包括都市规划界、景观界、建筑界的代表、不动产及建筑师工会的业界代表及政府部门代表等,共同促成都市发展下环境品质提升的目标,并创造人、生活与都市之间的紧密联系并寻找现代文化的精神[1]。每年审议的重要目标遵循着都市发展的脉络调整,深化现代都市发展的内涵。审议的范围主要有新建的公共建筑、停车场、开发强度与重要度较高的项目,审议的重点包含容积移转、建筑形式与色彩、交通系统、景观与开放空间、植栽绿美化、街道家具、广告布及管理维护计划等。2010 年至 2017 年,都市设计审议平均每年审理 100 余件案例,足见其对于都市空间整体品质的影响性。

    都市空间大奖设置目的以奖励“都设空间及设计美学”为主轴,各届的奖项配合都市发展及都市设计审议的策略与趋势调整,鼓励优秀建筑师、景观设计师、开发商、营建商等城市建设相关从业人员,形成一股提升城市环境品质的正向力量。本文分析了 2015 年至 2018 年完成且荣获都市设计空间大奖的作品,聚焦转变内聚式私人空间为友善公共资产”“人工基盘绿色建筑思维都市过渡性开发手法三项都市设计核心策略的操作手法及成效。

     

    1 转变内聚式私人空间为友善公共资产

    1.1 惠宇清朗

    项目基地属于旧市区的开发项目,基地周围多为高密度、低矮(4 楼左右)且屋龄达 20 年的旧建物。小区主入口面临 30 m 宽的车水马龙的中清路,开放空间留设的尺度受限于骑楼及人行道的连续性与一致性,未能营造足够的绿荫空间。但该项目于基地西侧设置一条供周边邻里穿越的景观小径,串联大面积退缩出的开放空间。一方面,降低建筑量体冲击性;另一方面,提供周边居民驻留及通行的便捷性。这条为提升优质都市空间生活的小径,一侧以绿墙的手法,缓冲并隐藏边侧环境的杂乱;另一侧则善用笔直高耸的落羽松,将狭窄的人行通道以障眼法向空中延伸,巧妙地解决了空间的压迫性,创造了舒适且富有趣味的都市秘径[2]

    研究者曾经在北京住过一段时间,非常怀念胡同间的人情味,有一种家的感觉。人们对地方的记忆会形成情感、认同感和依附感。在设计前,该项目是没有这条小巷的,它被景观水池阻隔,无法连续通行。所以,在都市设计审议时,委员共同决议应留设此小径以保证周边居民交通联结的便利性与友善性,并将住宅配置的开放空间变成公共资源。这条小径原本十分狭窄,但通过景观设计,应用垂直型植栽和大理石镜面反射,创造了一个适宜人行的幽静空间(图12)。

    1.2 龙宝谦臻邸

    在都市设计策略上,该项目以主建物正面自马路边缘缩进 10 m 宽的开放空间及双层安静的绿带空间,对应繁忙且宽 60 m 的市政路,以蜿蜒的街道绿带形式串联至邻近的公园。基地西侧及北侧配置的绿地分别连接邻栋诚臻邸与后侧心臻邸的绿意,创造了都市街道公园化的可能性。设计师以其对环境与空间质量的坚持,再次转变内聚式私人空间为人本的公共性资产,谦让的空间设计思维营造了建筑与自然对话的机会,也让建筑物名副其实地融入城市绿地舞台中;绿意盎然的复层植栽提供了丰富多样的生态栖地,虫鸣鸟叫的声音为都市注入了活力,增添了繁忙生活的悠闲风韵;垂直绿化的完整性、街道家具的艺术性、公共艺术的绿化性都是本案的亮点,开创了宜居花园城市的契机(图35)。

     

    2 人工基盘绿色建筑思维

    2.1 四季艺术幼儿园黎明校区

    四季艺术幼儿园是一所著名的艺术教育幼儿园。面对都市发展的人工基盘,建筑师采用大量绿化策略,试图在人为的建筑中营造与大自然对话的可能。各楼层阳台绿化采用降板工法,降低了种植槽槽体边缘高度,提高儿童与绿植直接接触的机会,同时,也延伸了使用者与外部城市景观视觉的连接,成功地在人工基盘上营造自然的生态。此外,相同手法也运用于一层的人行空间与水平空间的楼板设计,使得绿化槽体与人行铺面齐平,行人通行更加便捷与舒适,让绿地系统更加完整(图6)。

    2.2 龙宝愉臻邸

    该项目的建筑量体由基地外侧边界向中心集中,并采用最低建蔽率配置,保留了大量的绿地与周边人行道、开放空间及公园连接的机会[2]。建筑与绿地实虚的空间错位将外部绿意借位为建筑内部空间的视景;大型公共艺术彰显入口的自明性,街道家具与雕塑轻巧地融入环境,抬头仰望,建筑物外墙的艺术造型与隔层阳台绿意盎然的垂直绿化相映蓝天;多孔隙及多样性的植栽及材料选用营造了生物栖地与生机盎然的景色;以往高层建筑仅仅享有从高空看地面的权利,垂直绿化及屋顶花园思维的进步下,使用者在家中就可以获得如同身处公园中的体验。

    该项目各楼层住户都有私人阳台,以大量绿化的复层式植物种植设计理念,搭配多层次四季灌木及多年生花草,绿意由一层庭院向上串联,连接垂直楼层阳景观台,直至屋顶空中花园,各家种植喜爱的花草与蔬果,处处流露自然的绿意。开发者与设计师对环境的友善气度与持续维护管理的正向态度是该项目成功展现住宅公园化的关键(图7)。

     

    1 惠宇清朗平面图(图片来源 :惠宇建设)

    Figure 1 The Plane Graph of HuiyuqinglangSource Huiyu Construction

     

    2-1 惠宇清朗

    Figure 2-1 Huiyuqinglang

     

    2-2 惠宇清朗

    Figure 2-2 Huiyuqinglang

     

    3 龙宝谦臻邸平面图(图片来源 :龙宝建设)

    Figure 3 The Plane Graph of Longbaoqianzhen ResidenceSource Longbao Construction

     

    4 龙宝谦臻邸剖面图——创造街道公园化(图片来源 :龙宝建设)

    Figure 4 The Cutaway View of Longbaoqianzhen Residence-Making the Streets ParksSource Longbao Construction

     

    5-1 龙宝谦臻邸

    Figure 5-1 Longbaoqianzhen Residence

    5-2 龙宝谦臻邸

    Figure 5-2 Longbaoqianzhen Residence

    3 都市过渡性土地开发

    3.1 惠宇建设咏春段

    都市中等待开发的私有土地往往以尚未开发、闲置孤立的形式存在于都市环境中。该项目被称作“建材的粮仓”,设计师将“粮仓”的精神注入开发商“养地”观念中。设计师利用基地自身的土壤挖填与其他建筑工程土方的调整,创造水域及山丘的地形空间变化,再以设计的手法放置待用的植物与景石,营造视觉的焦点。人行动线及眺望平台的铺面则使用建筑剩余可用材料,以动态物流的思维及低成本的原则辟建了都市的休闲小秘境。此外,基地外部的竹围篱随风轻晃,相互的撞击与落瀑的共鸣声增添了都市活力与使用者的期待。该项目是临时性设计,设计师将施工剩余的一些建筑材料组合起来,成功地激活都市动态的脉动,创造了一定的景观效益,并可供市民使用。同时,未来将使用的植栽会在基地中进行假植,石材也存放在基地上,如同运转的仓库一样[4](图8)。

    3.2 巨虹水岸秘境

    这个基地为都市中等待开发的私有地,闲置的空间运用简易的土壤挖填营造了水城的意象,使得原本在都市中闲置的空间获得了新生,成为可供市民休闲使用的开放空间。基地内种植落雨松、榉树、无患子等80余种树,并以货柜屋建构可移动的临时性室内展览空间、设置生态池、配置王振玮及任大贤二位艺术家的地景艺术作品,在城市中以低冲击、低开发手法创造绿意,增添都市空间的活力与可用性(图9)。

     

    6-1 四季艺术幼儿园黎明校区

    Figure 6-1 Dawn Campus of Four Seasons Art Kindergarten

     

    6-2 四季艺术幼儿园黎明校区

    Figure 6-2 Dawn Campus of Four Seasons Art Kindergarten

     

    7-1 龙宝愉臻邸

    Figure 7-1 Longbaoyuzhen Residence

    7-2 龙宝愉臻邸

    Figure 7-2 Longbaoyuzhen Residence

     

    7-3 龙宝愉臻邸

    Figure 7-3 Longbaoyuzhen Residence

     

    4 结语

    纵观全球都市发展脉络,19 世纪英国的 Birkenhead Park 和美国纽约的 Central Park 都是以面状公园提升城市环境质量,促进周边地产价值提升的典范。然而随着社会价值与环境的变迁及科学技术的进步,面状及带状公园的设计思维已无法满足城市发展与使用者的需求。面对当代公园定位与更新改造的时刻,从业者更应该从城市的宏观思维出发考虑,对应都市设计政策与绿地系统发展的综合考虑,不能孤立或偏颇思考。人工基盘绿化、垂直及屋顶绿化和开放空间的绿化与友善化,都是创造城市公园的必要手段。都市是文化的容器,公园的绿地除了提升环境的质量,对于区域经济与人文活动的激活都起到了很大的作用,可以体现出都市生活的文化灵魂,实现宜居城市的愿景。

     

    8-1 惠宇建设咏春段

    Figure 8-1 The Wing Chun Section Constructed by Huiyu Construction

     

    8-2 惠宇建设咏春段

    Figure 8-2 The Wing Chun Section Constructed by Huiyu Construction

    9-1 巨虹水岸秘境

    Figure 9-1 Juhong Waterfront Secret Area

     

    9-2 巨虹水岸秘境

    Figure 9-2 Juhong Waterfront Secret Area

     

    Introduction

    The main purpose of urban design is to create high-quality urban life. Taichung City regards itself as a cultural city [1]. In recent years, the government of Taichung City has committed to building the city into a people-oriented livable garden city. Moreover, due to the global thinking of sustainability and ecology, the government of Taichung City has promoted the trend of urban parks. As everyone knows that the government of Taichung City has held the "Urban Design Space Award" for many years in succession, giving recognition to outstanding urban design works. Taichung City Urban Design Review is a practical and highly challenging dialogue platform for urban construction. It consists of about 20 members, including academic representatives from the urban planning, landscape, architecture, industry representatives from the real estate and architect labor union, and representatives of government departments, etc. To jointly promote the goal of environmental quality improvement under the urban development, and to create the spirit of people, life, city and search for modern culture [1]. The important goals reviewed each year will be adjusted to the context of urban development and deepen the connotation of modern urban development. The scope of review mainly includes newly-built public buildings, parking lots, and development cases with high development intensity and importance. The focus of review includes volume transfer, type and color of construction, transportation system, landscape and open space, planting trees and city beautification, street furniture, advertising cloth, management and maintenance plan, etc. From 2010 to 2017, more than 100 cases on average were dealt each year, which shows its impact on the overall quality of urban space.

    The setting purpose of the "Urban Space Design Prize" is to mainly reward "Urban Design Space and Design Aesthetics". The prizes of each competition are adjusted to the urban development and strategies and trend of urban design review, encourage outstanding architects, landscape designers, developers, builders and other urban construction-related professionals, and form a positive force to improve the quality of urban environment. This paper analyzes the works completed from 2015 to 2018 and won the "Urban Space Design Prize", and focuses on the operation methods and effects of the three core urban design strategies of "transforming cohesive private space into friendly public assets", "the thought of green buildings built on the artificial foundation" and "the method of urban transitional development".

     

    1 Transform Cohesive Private Space into Friendly Public Assets

    1.1 Huiyuqinglang

    The project base is a development project in the old urban area. The base is mostly surrounded by high-density, low (around the height of four floors) old buildings with a housing age of 20 years. The main entrance of the housing estate is a 30-meter busy and crowded road called Zhongqing Road. The scale of the open space is limited by the continuity and consistency of the overhead arcade and sidewalk, and it fails to create enough shade of trees. However, in this case, a landscape path is constructed on the west side of the base for the neighboring residents to pass through, connecting with the greatly reduced open space. On the one hand, it can reduce the impact of the building structure, and on the other hand, it can provide the convenience for the neighboring residents to stay and pass. This path improves the quality of urban living space, by building a green wall on one side to buffer and hide the clutter of the side environment, while on the other side, it distracts attention by making good use of the straight and towering swamp cypress to extend the narrow pedestrian passage into the air, skillfully solving the tension brought by the narrow space and creating a comfortable and interesting urban secret path [2].

    Researchers once lived in Beijing for a period of time, and I missed the milk of human kindness of walking in Hutongs, which made me feel at home. People's memory of the place will form feelings, identification and attachment. In this case, the design of the path did not exist since it was blocked by the landscape pool and people could not pass through it continuously. Therefore, during the review of urban design, the members jointly decided that the path should be constructed to provide convenience and friendliness of the transportation links for the surrounding residents, and the open space allocated by the residence should be turned into public resources. This path is very narrow, but through landscape design, vertical planting and marble mirror reflection are applied to create a quiet space suitable for pedestrians to pass.

    1.2 Longbaoqianzhen Residence

    In the urban design strategy, the project constructs the length of 10-meter open space and double-layer green belt space to gracefully face the busy municipal road with a width of 60-meter, and connect to the adjacent parks in the form of a meandering green belt. The green space on the west and north sides of the base connects with the green space of the adjacent "Chengzhen Residence" and the "Xinzhen Residence" on the back respectively, creating the possibility of urban streets becoming parks. With its insistence on friendly environment and space quality, the design team has once again transformed cohesive private space into people-oriented public assets. The humble space design thinking has created an opportunity for architecture and nature to exist harmoniously, and has also allowed the buildings to truly blend into the urban green space stage. The double-layer planting in full of green has provided rich and diverse ecological habitats. The sound of insects and songbirds has injected vitality into the city and added the leisurely charm to busy life. The integrality of vertical greening, the artistry of street furniture and the greening of public art are the highlights of this case, creating an opportunity for a livable garden city.

     

    2 The Thought of Green Buildings Built on the Artificial Foundation

    2.1 Dawn Campus of Four Seasons Art Kindergarten

    The Four Seasons Art Kindergarten is a very famous art education kindergarten. The architect in this case is one of Taiwan's representative architects of green architecture. Facing the artificial foundation of urban development, a large number of greening strategies are adopted to create the possibility of nature and buildings existing harmoniously in artificial buildings. The balcony greening of each floor adopts the method of lowering plate, which reduces the height of the edge of the planting groove, improves the chance of direct contact between children and green plants, and also extends the visual link between users and the external urban landscape, thus successfully creating a natural ecology on the artificial foundation. In addition, the same method is also applied to the floor design of the pedestrian space and horizontal space on the first floor, which makes the greening containers flush with the pedestrian pavement, makes the pedestrian traffic more convenient and comfortable, and makes the green space system more complete.

    2.2 Longbaoyuzhen Residence

    In this case, the building structure is concentrated from the outer boundary of the base to the center and adopts the lowest building coverage ratio, thus preserving a large number of opportunities for connecting green space with the surrounding sidewalks, open spaces and parks[2]. The real and virtual space misplacement between the buildings and the green space makes the external green plants as the view of the internal space of the buildings. Large-scale public art shows the self-explanatory nature of the entrance. Street furniture and sculpture are amazingly integrated into the environment. Looking up, the artistic form of the exterior wall of the buildings with the beautiful vertical greening of the balconies of various floors, and the blue sky contrast finely with each other. The porous and diverse planting and material selection have created a living habitat and vibrant scenery. In the past, high-rise buildings only enjoyed the right to see the ground from high altitude. With the improvement of vertical greening and roof garden thinking, users can get the experience like being in a park at home.

    In this case, the residents on each floor have private balconies. With the design concept of a large number of double-layer plants planting, the plants in containers match with multi-layer shrubs of four seasons and perennial flowers and plants. The greening is connected in series from the first-floor courtyard upwards to the landscape terraces of vertical floors, up to the roof sky garden. Each family grows favorite flowers, plants and fruits, showing natural beauty from every detail. The positive attitude of developers and designers towards the friendly environment and continuous maintenance and management is the key to the successful demonstration of turning the residence into a park in this case.

    3 Urban Transitional Land Development

    3.1 The Wing Chun Section Constructed by Huiyu Construction

    Private land waiting to be developed in the city often exists in the urban environment as abandoned, idle and isolated. This case is called "Granary of Building Materials". The construction company has injected the spirit of "granary" into the developer's concept of "maintaining land". The designer makes use of the base's own soil excavation and filling and the adjustment of earthwork of other construction projects to create topographic and spatial changes in water areas and hills, and then places plants and landscape stones to be applied in a design way to create a visual focus. The pavement of the pedestrian moving line and the overlooking platform uses the remaining usable materials of the building to create a small leisure environment of the city with the thinking of dynamic logistics and the principle of low cost. In addition, the bamboo fence outside the base sways gently with the wind, and the mutual impact and sound of waterfalls add to the vitality of the city and the expectations of users. This project is a temporary design, which combines some building materials left over from construction, successfully activates the pulsation of urban dynamics, creates certain landscape benefits, and is open for public use and sharing. At the same time, the future use of plants will be planted in the base, and the future use of stone materials will be stored in the base, just like a running warehouse [4].

    3.2 Juhong Waterfront Secret Area

    This base is a private land waiting to be developed in the city. The unused space is used simple soil excavation and filling to create the image of a waterfront city, which makes the unused space in the city reborn and become an open space for citizens to use for leisure. More than 80 kinds of tree species such as swamp cypress, beech and soapberry are planted in the base. The Structure of container house is used to construct movable temporary indoor exhibition spaces, ecological pools and landscape works by two artists, Wang Zhenwei and Ren Daxian are set up, and designers create greenery in the city with low impact and easy development methods, thus increasing the vitality and usability of the urban space.

     

    4 Conclusion

    From a comprehensive perspective of the development of global cities, Birkenhead Park in Britain in the 19th century and Central Park in New York in the United States are both examples of planar parks that improve the quality of urban environment and promote the value of surrounding real estate. However, with the changes of social value and environment and the progress of science and technology, the design thinking of planar and belt parks can no longer meet the needs of urban development and users. Facing the moment of positioning and renovation of contemporary parks, professionals should start from the macro-thinking of the city, and should not think in isolation or bias in response to the comprehensive consideration of urban design policies and the system development of green area. Afforesting based on the artificial foundation, vertical and roof greening and friendliness and greening of open space are all necessary means to create urban parks. City is the container of culture. In addition to improving the quality of the environment, the green space in parks has played a great role in the activation of regional economic and cultural activities, reflecting the cultural soul of urban life and implementing the vision of a livable city.

    参考文献(References)

    [1] 于正伦 . 城市环境创造 景观与环境设施设计 . 台北 : 田园城市文化,2004.

    Yu, Chung Lun, Created City Environment, Taichung, 2004.

    [2] 林佳龙 . 花现美学空间,绿建筑生活场域 :台中市都市空间设计大奖 . 第六届 . 台中 :中市府,2018.

    Lin, Chia Lung, 6th Urban Space Design Prize of Taichung, Taichung Government, 2018.

    [3] 林佳龙 . 城市裁缝师 : 改变台中的 15 个关键决策 . 台中 : 中市府,2018.

    Lin, Chia Lung, City Tailor , Taichung Government,, 2018.

    [4] 林佳龙 . 居以游筑以艺 : 台中市都市空间设计大奖 . 第五届 . 台中 : 中市府,2017. Lin, Chia Lung, 5th Urban Space Design Prize of Taichung, Taichung Government,2017.

     

    (整理:赵迪 译:尤培鸿)

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