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    建成环境生境营造研究与实践
    2019-07-19  点击:[]

    建成环境生境营造研究与实践

    Habitat-site Design and Practice of the Built Environment

    王晶懋 许博文

    LIU Hui, WANG Jingmao, XU Bowen

    刘晖 / 1968 年生 / / 辽宁人 / 博士 / 西安建筑科技大学建筑学院教授、博士生导师 / 研究方向为西北脆弱生态环境景观规划设计理论与方法、中国地景文化历史与理论

    通信作者邮箱 (Corresponding author Email): 249600425@qq.com

    LIU Hui, female, who was born in 1968 in Liaoning Province, is a professor and doctoral supervisor of College of Architecture, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, the editorial members of this journal. Her research focuses on landscape planning and design theory on the green space in northwestern cities in fragile ecological region of China, Chinese landscape culture history and theory.

    王晶懋 / 1988 年生 / / 内蒙古人 / 博士 / 西安建筑科技大学建筑学院副教授 / 研究方向为西北脆弱生态环境景观规划设计理论与方法

    WANG Jingmao, female, who was born in 1988 in Inner Mongolia, is the associate professor and works in College of Architecture, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology as a post-doctoral. Her research focuses on landscape planning and design theory on the green space in northwestern cities in fragile ecological region of China.

    许博文 / 1994 年生 / / 陕西人 / 西安建筑科技大学建筑学院在读硕士研究生 / 研究方向为风景园林规划设计

    XU Bowen, male, who was born in 1994 in Shaanxi Province, is the master candidate in school of architecture, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology. His research focuses on the planning and design of landscape architecture.

    摘要:面对脆弱自然生态环境条件的制约,西北地区城市化的发展更需要建立人工干预下的新的生态过程。本文以“人工地被植物群落组构”和“自生地被植物群落组构”为研究对象,营造了1 m2的生境单元,这种小尺度绿地空间为植物群落的多样性提供了契机。建成之后,花园在承担教学任务的同时,也影响了人的行为活动,提高了周边居民对植物生态知识的认知度。采用适宜的设计语言,将场地生境营造模式应用到的城市建成环境之中,能够促进实现“美丽中国”的愿景。

    关键词:建成环境;生境营造;生境花园;地被植物群落组构

    Abstract: The urbanization development of northwest China is restricted by fragile natural ecological environment, in this way a new ecological process under artificial intervention is necessary. Taking Manual Intervened Ground-cover Plant Community Composition (MIGPCC-BE) and Spontaneous Ground-cover Plant Community Composition (SGPCC-BE) as the research objects, we built a number of one-squaremeter habitat-site units. These small-scale green spaces provide opportunities to improve the plant community diversity. After the construction of the habitat-site garden, it not only undertakes the teaching task, but also affects people's behavior and activities, improving the surrounding residents’ awareness on plant ecological knowledge. Adopt appropriate design approach and apply the habitat-site design model to the built environment can promote the realization of the vision of "Beautiful China".

    Key words: built environment; habitat-site design; habitat-site garden; groundcover plant community composition

    引言

    生态系统存在于多样化的环境中,小尺度的空间环境中也存在着丰富的生态系统。生态系统由生物群落和生境构成,生物群落包含植物群落和动物群落,生境由气候环境和土壤环境共同影响。显然,生态系统存在于自然环境当中,也存在于城市建成的环境当中[1]。如今,随着全球进入“城市世纪”,城市已经不只是单纯的居住环境,其对人类社会发展也有着重大意义[2]。城市化建设带来了新的生态过程,它紧密耦合于建筑、道路等人工设施所构建成的城市绿地空间格局中。近20年来,中国正经历着前所未有的城市化发展,原有的绿洲生态系统被大规模建设中的城市所替代[3]。如何在城市绿地建设中采取必要的人工干预措施,依托城市建设来营建人工绿洲,从而实现一种伴随城市化发展的新的生态过程,加强城市各类绿地植物群落的生态服务性功能,是城市健康持续发展的必经之路。

    城市绿地规划建设的品质是“美丽中国”在有关健康优美人居环境营建的重要内容,是服务生态园林城市、城市双修、海绵城市、公园城市等国家战略的实践领域。中国城市绿化建设的特点体现在规模大、公众诉求高、政府重视,以及国土自然条件多样而建设模式单一等方面。基于城市绿化建设的特点,本文开展对建成环境生境营造的理论和方法研究,研究基于以下几方面的背景。第一,城市建成环境中的生境条件与自然生境条件不同,所具备的生态系统具有特殊性[4],在当今中国城市化发展中,如何营建良好的城市生态系统值得研究。第二,西北地区的生境原型以地被植物群落为主体,地被植物群落在小尺度场地上能够快速生长,这一生境原型在城市建设中具有独特性和适宜性[5]。第三,城市建成环境中的绿地有多种类型,城市自然环境中的绿地已具备生态意义,并逐渐形成特有的生态系统,耦合在城市建成环境之中的破碎化小型绿地,发挥着小尺度场地的生态效益,因此在场地尺度上研究地被植物群落是具有意义的。

    1 1 m2 的潜力:城市中的生态美

    城市建成环境中的生境由建构筑物、铺地及其他人工设施组成,其生境因子包含城市小气候、城市水文及土壤条件等,干旱半干旱地区城市中的生境较之其自然环境具有更为丰富的多样性,也具有一定的相似性特征,其影响下的植物群落及其演替也具有相似规律。

    根据中国西北干旱半干旱地区五个典型城市——西安、兰州、银川、西宁和乌鲁木齐的自生地被群落调查,发现所在的自然植被区域有七种草地自然原型:草丛、疏林草丛、山地草原、山地草甸草原、平原荒漠草原、山地荒漠草原和山地荒漠。根据这些城市中典型生境中自生地被群落调查,发现其植物群落具有相似性群落组构特征:结构为23层,物种丰富度为每平方米3~14种,旱地地被覆盖度较低(图1)。群落物种叶面积较小,质感细腻,夏季色彩丰富且有变化,秋冬色彩以棕黄色为主,春夏有少量的开花植物点缀,冬季以枯而不倒的植物为主。

    群落生态学的研究表明,1 m×1 m 的生境内可包含一个完整的草本群落生态系统,作为植物群落组构及设计的基本单元,适用于建成环境独立而破碎的绿化场地。研究发现,以“自然参与”为途径的设计研究与实践存在六种植物群落种植模式,本文选择适宜中国建设模式的两种作为研究对象,即“人工地被植物群落组构”和“自生地被植物群落组构”(图2)。按照群落组成的分层理论、植物群落竞争理论(CRS)、季相感官特征等,选择乡土植物,构建四个实验群落,组成八种实验样方(图3)。

    通过近三年的实验及观测研究,总结出这两种地被植物群落组构的生态价值、美感度的可行性及其设计模式。人工地被植物群落组构适合于景观型、人工干预比较多的情况,这种组构的关键在于结构层、地被层、季节层的分层式人工干预方式。其中,在西北半干旱地区,地被层未形成时可以用人工覆盖物保持土壤水分,季节层能够丰富植物的景观效果,结构层在凋零期能够维持景观的可持续性(图4)。自生地被植物群落更具有自然荒野的特点,通过人工干预措施,分期介入植物种类,能够增加植物群落的美感度,较易形成地被覆盖;但是自生地被植物群落冬季凋零期较长,人工介入可以改善植被在冬季凋零期的美感度。自生物群落改良在城市疏林草甸、河道修复、边坡绿化和城市建成环境的消极空间中更具有适应性。两类群落能够再现西北半干旱区自然群落的色彩、质感、季相及可感知的物种多样性。群落景观的多样性和动态性为城市居民带来丰富持久的自然体验。1 m2的“生境+植物群落”单元可以成为城市生态系统的“细胞”,在破碎化的城市生境中分裂、扩散。适宜不同生境的群落模式可以充分利用多样化的城市生境,营造城市生物多样性格局。多尺度、多层次的生境网络系统可以带来更广泛的生态系统服务功能和社会效益。独立的、小尺度的绿地在城市中具有板块多、分布广、破碎化等特点,在西北城市绿地生态建设中,人工干预的小尺度绿地空间为植物群落的多样性提供了契机[6]

    1 西北半干旱地区附属绿地中的1m×1m 实验样方

    Figure 1 1 m×1 m Experimental Quadrates in the Appendage Green Land in Northwest China Semi-arid Region

    2 人工地被植物群落组构”和“自生地被植物群落组构”植物群落种植模式比较

    Figure 2 Comparison of“Manual Intervened Groundcover Plant Community Composition (MIGPCC-BE)” and“Spontaneous Ground-cover Plant Community Composition (SGPCC-BE)” Plant Community Planting Patterns

    3 自生地被植物群落组构”实验群落与样方

    Figure 3“Spontaneous Ground-cover Plant Community Composition (SGPCC-BE)” Experimental Plant Community and Experimental Quadrates

    2 城市植物群落与人:社会偏好与公众教育

    2.1 行为活动分析

    在扬 盖尔的《交往与空间》一书中,把公共空间中的活动类型分为必要性活动、自发性活动和社会性活动三种[7],根据活动发生的频率,又可以将其分为高频行为、中频行为与偶发性行为[8]。通过观察和分析西安建筑科技大学南门花园的录像,按照该分类方式对人的行为进行解析与归类。

    必要性活动和社会性活动都具有较强的引导性和非自愿性,所以为了更好地分析出进入场地的游人与植物自发产生的互动关系,本文将自发性的活动进行了详细的分类,按照是否与植物相关和行为发生的频率进一步细化活动类型,分析结果如表1所示。

    2.2 承载一定的教育意义

    东楼花园和南门花园至今已有15年的历史,不仅让建筑工程类大学的专业师生对风景园林学科有了新的生态认知及学习视角,也为周边居民活动提供了休闲场地。花园的设计与营建伴随着风景园林学科的成长,见证了风景园林学科的发展,花园正是一部浓缩的历史。

    南门花园内的地被植物生境营造实验也经常吸引大量国内外的师生前来观摩与交流。花园为师生提供了多目标的教学平台与场所,师生们不仅设计、建设并维护花园,还开展场地测绘,观察植物群落演变,制作自然笔记。节日期间,精心装点的花园又成为休闲娱乐的活动场所,成为了人们生活的一部分。

    同时,花园也提高了周边居民对植物生态知识的公众认知度。自2016年开始,相关部门便开展了公众对植物群落景观偏好的研究,进而对生境花园中群落的设计方法进行优化。研究内容包括植物群落生物多样性可感知程度、植物群落环境的影响程度、标示牌对提高公众认知度的影响等内容。有85 %的居民是被植物吸引而来,有77 %的居民想学习植物和生态学的知识。另外,居民也会主动表达自己对花园的想法,并询问花园的设计与管理,从多角度理解风景园林学科(图5)。

    4 南门花园两类植物群落形成的季相变化

    Figure 4 Seasonal Characteristics Changes of Two Plant Communities in South Gate Garden

    2.3 影响行为的植物景观

    两个花园场地中分别安装了三个摄像头对花园进行连续性的拍摄记录。在20178月至20187月这12个月中,每个月选取天气晴朗的六天,作为视频读取时间,每天当中选取三个时间段进行统计。2017923日为秋分,2018321日为春分,所以2017923日到2018321日之间,以7:009:0011:0015:0016:0018:00为具体观察时间段,该区间外的日子以6:008:0011:0015:0018:0020:00为具体观察时间段。视频主要读取每天进入场地的人数、人与地被植物的互动频率以及人在场地中的行为活动。

    通过读取视频可以发现,2月份的日均人流量最低,此时的花园植物长势较差、景色萧条。3月份达到人流量的峰值,日均吸引游客可达86人。由于春、夏季植物开花、秋季植物质感特殊与冬季植物枯而不倒,使得生境营造模式下的地被植物群落区域比传统的种植区域更吸引人。由于花园位于高校校园,在每天进入场地的人中,中青年占据了到访人数中的70%以上。中青年在场地中主要以穿行、拍摄照片和等候为主;儿童在进入花园时往往有大人陪同,对环境有着更强的好奇心,喜欢用手触摸植物、喜欢在场地内的小道中穿行、喜欢在场地中较为复杂的地方玩耍游憩;老年人进入场地,更喜欢俯身近距离观察植物,对花园内的标识系统和实验观测仪器有着较强的好奇心,喜欢与学生进行交流与询问。

    另外,在一年中不同的月份,游客在场地内停留时间较长的区域并不相同,区域内植物本身并无明显规律性,但是可以发现区域中地被植物的生长特性确实有着明显的规律性(表2)。在春季,植物大量开花,因此开花较多的区域游客的停留时间明显较长,这与植物开花的形态、颜色均无明显关系,且由于植物体量较小,除自身之外的因素更加明显地显现,如容器和土壤覆盖物。到了夏季,很多植物花期已过,因此,除了开花的特性之外,植物的质感与长势也成为了一个使得游客驻足停留的重要因素。进入秋冬季节之后,大部分植物长势开始变差,逐渐枯萎,因此,依旧开花的植物会成为整个场地中的焦点;此外,在植物大面积枯萎凋零的情况下,常绿植物和枯而不倒的植物,也会引来游客长时间驻足观看,这为今后的设计都带来了重要的启发(图6)。

    3 设计语言与实践:场地生境营造

    建成环境生态系统建设的研究存在于多个学科和实践领域中,设计营建类的学科领域对于生态学知识的实践应用具有很多挑战。中国风景园林学科面对跨专业合作、中西文化语境、社会公众景观偏好的文化背景等方面的挑战,其实际应用的需求也是巨大的,提出适宜的设计语言显得尤为重要。建成环境生境营造实验的实践过程,主要体现在以下方面:

    第一,基于一般场地设计营建方法,提出生境营造基本程序及内容。第一步,结合场地分析与功能分区,评估分析“场地生境类型”,进行“场地生境分区”;第二步,结合景观要素设计及其空间布局,进行“地被植物群落组构”类型及形态设计,并根据生态和美学绩效需求进行空间布局;第三步,结合工程实施需求,进行“地被植物群落建植”实施方案设计;最后是维护管理,为了促进地被植物群落演替达到相对稳态,展开年度季节性的“连续性设计”和维护管理。

    第二,地被植物群落作为城市建成环境生态格局中生境斑块,如何介入?基于1 m2×1 m2植物群落人工组构的基础样方,提出“生境岛”,以其适宜的形态置入到绿地、硬质铺地中,通过进一步空间格局构建,构成有价值的生境网络(图7)。

    第三,海绵城市建设带来的实践应用契机。陕西西咸新区沣西新城海绵城市建设中,位于道路绿化带、居住小区、城市公园等不同类型绿地中的各类生物滞留设施,成为半干旱地区城市环境中间接性“湿地”斑块,促使建成环境生境多样性,提出“旱涝”适宜的地被植物群落设计建植的基本导则。

    4 结语

    城市建成环境生境营造研究,是在设计过程中寻找场地空间和植物群落构建之间的相互关系。在场地环境条件下,设计如何为生物群落栖息创造适生生境条件,控制其演替发展成为关键性思路。对场地生境条件的模拟、分析、预判、场地布局组织、植物群落式种植以及连续性设计适应群落形态的演变过程,是提出绿地空间生态设计理论与生境营造方法的背景,仍需要大量科学实验验证以及持续的实践研究。

    在当前城市化建设中,实现生态、社会效益是建立美丽中国的基本需求。建设美丽中国不仅要发扬中国传统文化,还应践行科学价值的“美丽”以及在日常生活环境中建设科学教育场所,从而打造身边的美丽“自然”。美丽中国之于风景园林,是每一个人、每一个群体对于美丽的理解、追求和享用。

    5 南门花园中教学活动与公众参与

    Figure 5 Teaching Activities and Public Participation in the South Gate Garden

    6 南门花园中公众的参与和游憩

    Figure 6 Public Participation and Recreation in the South Gate Garden

    7 生境营造连续性设计模式

    Figure 7 Habitat-site Continuity Design Pattern

    Introduction

    Ecosystems exist in multi-scale environments. Small-scale space environment also contains rich ecosystems, which are composed of biological communities and habitat-sites. Biological communities include plant communities and animal communities, and habitat-sites are jointly affected by climate environment and soil environment. It is obviously that ecosystem exists in both natural environment and urban built environment [1]. As the world enters the "urban century", cities have not only meant the simple way of living in modern times, but also have great significance to the development of human society [2]. Urbanization has brought about a new ecological process, which is closely coupled with the spatial pattern of urban green space constructed by artificial facilities such as buildings and roads. In the past 20 years, China is experiencing unprecedented urbanization. The original oasis ecosystem has been replaced by cities under large-scale construction [3]. How can we take necessary human intervention measures in the construction of urban green space and rely on urban construction to build artificial oases so as to realize a new ecological process accompanying the development of urbanization? Strengthening the ecological service function of various green plant communities in the city may be the only way for the healthy and sustainable development of the city.

    The quality of green space planning and construction in cities is not only an important content of "Beautiful China" in the construction of healthy and beautiful living environment, but also a practical field serving national strategies such as ecological garden city, urban double restoration, sponge city, garden city, etc. The characteristics of urban greening construction in China are reflected in many aspects, such as large scale, high public demands, government attention, and diverse natural conditions of the land. There are also problems such as single construction mode. According to the characteristics of urban greening construction, the theoretical and methodological research on environmental habitat-site design has been carried out, which is based on the following background. First, the habitat-site conditions in the built environment of a city are different from the natural habitat-site conditions, and its ecosystem has particularity [4]. In modern urbanization development in China, it will be worthwhile to study how to build a good urban ecosystem. Second, the habitat-site prototype in northwest China is mainly composed of ground-cover plant communities. Ground-cover plant communities can grow rapidly on small-scale sites, and this habitat-site prototype has uniqueness and suitability in urban construction [5]. Third, there are many types of greenbelts in the built environment of cities, which have ecological significance and gradually form unique ecological systems. It is coupled with the fragmented small-scale green space in the built environment of the city, and plays an ecological benefit of a small-scale site. Therefore, it is significant to study the ground-cover plant community on the site scale.

    1 Potential of One Square Meter: Ecological Beauty in Cities

    Habitat-site in the built environment of the city consists of building structure, paving and other artificial facilities. Its habitat-site factors include urban microclimate, urban hydrology and soil conditions, etc. Compared with its natural environment, the habitat-sites in cities of arid and semi-arid regions are richer in diversity and have certain characteristics of typology and similarity. The plant community and succession under its influence also have similar laws.

    According to the investigation of the spontaneous ground-cover plant communities in the typical habitat-site of Xi 'an, Lanzhou, Yinchuan, Xining and Urumqi in northwest China arid and semi-arid regions, it can be found that there are 7 natural prototypes of grassland in the natural vegetation region: grass, sparse forest grass, mountain grassland, mountain meadow grassland, plain desert grassland, mountain desert grassland and mountain desert. According to the investigation of the spontaneous ground-cover plant communities in typical habitat-site of these cities, it can be found that their plant communities have similar community composition characteristics: the structure includes 2-3 layers, the species richness is 3-14/m2, and the coverage rate of dry land is relatively low (figure 1). The community species have small leaf area and fine texture. In summer, it is colorful and changeable. In autumn and winter, its color is mainly brown and yellow. In spring and summer, there are a small number of flowering plants as embellishments, and in winter, withered plants are the main ones.

    Studies on community ecology show that a 1 m×1 m habitat-site can contain a complete herbaceous community ecosystem. As the basic unit of plant community structure and design, it can be applied to greening sites that are broken due to independent built environment. According to the research, there are 6 plant community planting patterns in the design research and practice through "natural participation". The research group has chosen two kinds of suitable construction models in China as the research objects, namely "manual intervened ground-cover plant community composition" and "spontaneous ground-cover plant community composition" (figure 2). According to the hierarchical theory of community composition, plant community competition theory (CRS) and seasonal sensory characteristics, native plants were selected, 4 experimental communities were constructed, and 8 experimental quadrates were composed (figure 3).

    After nearly three years of experiments and observation, the feasibility and design pattern of the two ground-cover plant community structures in terms of ecological value and aesthetic feeling were found. The manual intervened groundcover plant community composition is suitable for the demand of landscape type and more artificial intervention. The key of this mode lies in the layered artificial intervention mode among structural layer, ground-cover layer and seasonal layer. Among them, artificial mulch can be used to keep soil moisture in the semi-dry and wet areas in the northwest when the local cover is not formed. The seasonal layer can enrich the landscape effect of plants, and the structural layer can maintain the sustainability of the landscape during the withering period (figure 4). The spontaneous ground-cover plant community has more characteristics of natural wilderness. Through manual intervention and phased intervention of plant species, the aesthetic perception of plant communities can be increased, which can make the ground-cover easily formed. However, the winter withering period of the spontaneous ground-cover plant community is relatively long, and artificial intervention can improve the aesthetic degree of the winter withering period. The improvement of spontaneous ground-cover plant community has more adaptability in the negative space of urban sparse forest meadow, river channel restoration, slope greening and urban built environment.

    The two types of communities can once again show the color, texture, seasonal characteristics and perceived species diversity of the natural communities in the northwest arid region. The diversity and dynamics of community landscape bring rich and lasting natural experiences to people of different ages in the city. The "habitat+ plant community" unit of one square meter can become the "cell" of the urban ecosystem. They can split and spread in fragmented urban habitatsite. Community models suitable for different habitat-sites can make full use of diversified urban habitat-sites and create a pattern of urban biodiversity. More ecosystem services and social benefits can be brought by multi-scale and multilevel habitat network systems. Independent green space with site scale has many plates, wide distribution, fragmentation and other characteristics in the city. In the ecological construction of urban green space in northwest China, small-scale green space with artificial intervention provides an opportunity for the diversity of plant communities [6].

    2 Urban Plant Communities and Humans: Social Preference and Public Education

    2.1 Behavioral Activity Analysis

    In "Communication and Space" of the author Jan Gell, the types of activities in public space can be divided into three types: necessary activities, spontaneous activities and social activities [7]. According to the frequency of activity, it can be divided into high frequency behavior, intermediate frequency behavior and sporadic behavior [8]. By observing and analyzing the video of the South Gate Garden of Xi 'an University of Architecture and Technology, human behaviors are analyzed and classified according to this classification.

    Both necessary activities and social activities are strongly guided and involuntary. Therefore, in order to better analyze the spontaneous interaction between visitors and plants entering the site, we have classified the spontaneous activities in detail. We have further refined the types of activities according to whether they are related to plants and the frequency of occurrence of behaviors. The analysis results are shown in table 1.

    2.2 Bearing a Certain Educational Significance

    East building garden and south gate garden have a history of 15 years since they were built in 2003. They not only promote teachers and students of architectural engineering universities to have a new ecological cognition of landscape architecture design specialty, but also profoundly change and shape its builders, managers, participants and visitors. Moreover, they provide interesting venues and a new perspective of learning for nearby residents. The design and construction of gardens have accompanied the growth of landscape architecture discipline and witnessed the development of landscape architecture education in a university. The garden can be regarded as a condensed history.

    The experiment of ground-cover plant habitat-site design in the south gate garden often attracts many teachers and students from home and abroad to observe and exchange. The completed garden provides a multi-objective teaching platform for teachers and students. Teachers and students not only design, build and maintain gardens, but also carry out site mapping, observe the evolution of plant communities and make natural notes. It provides a teaching place for professional teachers and students. During the festival, the elaborately decorated garden became the focus of the whole school. Garden has become a part of community life.

    Meanwhile, the garden has also improved the public awareness of the surrounding residents on the knowledge of plant and ecology. Since 2016, the research on public landscape preference of plant communities has been carried out, and then the community design method in the habitat garden has been optimized. The study includes the perception of plant community biodiversity, the influence degree of plant community environment, the improvement of public awareness of billboard explanation education, etc. 85% of the residents who enter the garden are attracted by plants, and 77% believe they learn about plants and ecology after entering the garden. In addition, they will actively show their interest in the garden, ask about the profession of garden design and management, and understand the discipline of landscape architecture from various angles (figure 5).

    2.3 Plant Landscape Affecting Behavior

    Three cameras are installed in both garden sites to record the continuous shooting of the garden. In the 12 months from August 2017 to July 2018, six clear days in each month are selected as the video reading date. Three time periods of each day are selected for statistics. The autumn equinox is on September 23, 2017, and the spring equinox is on March 21, 2018. Therefore, between September 23, 2017 and March 21, 2018, the specific observation period includes 7: 00-9: 00, 11: 00-15: 00, 16: 00-18: 00. Outside this interval, the specific observation period includes 6: 00-8: 00, 11: 00-15: 00, 18: 00-20: 00. The video mainly reads the number of people entering the venue every day, the frequency of interaction between people and ground-cover plants, and the behavior of people in the venue.

    In the video reading, we can find that the average daily traffic in February is the lowest, at this time the garden plants are weak and the garden scene is depressed. The number of tourists reached its peak in March, attracting an average of 86 a day. Because of the flowering of plants in spring and summer, the special texture of plants in autumn and the withered and unyielding form of plants in winter, the ground-cover plant community region under the habitat-site design mode is more attractive than the traditional planting region. As the garden is located on the campus of a university, young and middle-aged people account for more than 70% of the tourists who enter the venue every day. Young and middle-aged people mainly take walks, take photos and wait for someone in the venue. Children often enter the garden accompanied by adults. They are more curious about the environment, like to touch plants with their hands, walk through the paths in the venue, and are more willing to play and play in the cluttered places in the venue. The elderly prefer to lean over and observe the plants closely after entering the venue. They have strong curiosity about the identification system and experimental observation instruments in the garden and would like to communicate and inquire with students.

    In addition, the areas where tourists stop for a long time are different in each month of the year. The plants in the region have no obvious regularity, but we can find that the growth characteristics of ground-cover plants in the region do have obvious regularity (table 2). Spring is the season when plants bloom in large quantities. Therefore, tourists stay longer in areas with more flowers. This has nothing to do with the flowering form and color of plants. Moreover, due to the small amount of plants, factors other than the plants themselves are more obvious, such as containers and soil covers. In summer, the flowering period of many plants has passed. Therefore, in addition to flowering, the texture and growth of plants have also become an important factor for tourists to stop at this stage. After entering autumn and winter, the growth of most plants began to weaken and gradually wither. Therefore, plants that still bloom will become the focus of the whole field in autumn and winter. In addition, evergreen plants and plants with withered and unbreakable branches will attract tourists to stop and watch for a long time when plants wither in a large area, which will bring important inspiration to our design in the future (figure 6).

    3 Design Language and Practice: Habitat-site Design

    Research on the construction of built environmental ecosystem exists in many disciplines and practice fields. The discipline field of design and construction has many challenges to the practical application of ecological knowledge. Facing the challenges of cross-disciplinary cooperation, Chinese and western cultural context, and the cultural background of the public landscape preference, Chinese landscape architecture discipline also has great demand in practical application. It is particularly important that appropriate design language is proposed. The process of habitat-site design and practice of the built environment is mainly reflected in the following aspects:

    First, on the basis of general site design and construction methods, the basic procedures and contents of habitat-site design are proposed. In the first step, combining site analysis and functional zoning, the "site habitat type" is evaluated and analyzed, and the "site habitat zoning" is carried out. The second step, combining landscape element design and its spatial layout, "ground-cover plant community composition" type and shape design are carried out, and spatial layout is implemented according to ecological and aesthetic performance requirements. The third step, combining the project implementation requirements, the implementation plan of "ground-cover planting" was carried out. The last step is maintenance and management. In order to promote the succession of ground-cover plant communities to reach a relatively stable state, annual seasonal "continuous design" and "succession maintenance" are carried out.

    Second, how does the ground-cover plant community intervene as a habitat-site patch in the urban built environmental ecological pattern? Based on the basic sample quadrate of artificial fabric of 1 m2×1 m2 plant community, we propose "Habitat-site Island". Its suitable form is applied to green land and hard floor. Valuable habitat-site networks are constructed through further spatial pattern construction (figure 7).

    Third, the practical application opportunities brought by sponge city construction. In the construction of sponge city in Fengxi New Town, Xixian New District, Shaanxi Province, various biological detention facilities located in different types of greenbelts such as road greenbelts, residential quarters and city parks have become indirect "wetland" patches in the urban environment of semiarid areas, which have promoted the construction of environmental habitat-site diversity. Basic guidelines for designing and planting suitable ground-cover plant communities for "drought and flood" have been proposed.

    4 Conclusion

    The research on the habitat-site design of urban built environment focuses on finding the relationship between site space and plant community construction in the design process. Under the environmental conditions of the site, the design is aimed at how to create suitable habitat-site conditions for the inhabitation of biological communities. The control of succession development has become a key idea. Through the simulation, analysis and prediction of site habitat-site conditions, site layout organization and plant community planting, as well as continuous design to adapt to the evolution process of community morphology. This is the background of the green space ecological design theory and the habitat-site design method. It still needs a lot of scientific verification and continuous practical research.

    In the current urbanization construction, ecological and social benefits are the basic needs for building a beautiful China. The construction of a beautiful China should not only carry forward the traditional Chinese culture, but also practice the "beauty" of scientific values, and build a scientific education place for the public to learn "beauty" in the living environment, so as to create beautiful "nature" around us. Beautiful China to landscape architecture is the understanding, pursuit and enjoyment of beauty by everyone and every group.

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    (整理:赵迪 译:张悦颖)

     

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