论文检索
    当前位置: 首页>>论文检索>>论文检索>>正文
    区域景观生态安全格局视角下的天津市海河教育园区二期绿廊景观设计实践
    2019-08-21  点击:[]

    区域景观生态安全格局视角下的

    天津市海河教育园区二期绿廊景观设计实践

    Landscape Design Practice of Green Gallery of Tianjin Haihe Education Park Phase II from the Viewpoint of Regional Landscape Ecological Security Pattern

    褚俊民 张璐* 田恬

    CHU Jumin ZHANG Lu TIAN Tian

     

    褚俊民 / 1978年生 / / 法国格勒罗布尔第二大学城市规划硕士、法国凡尔赛国家高等景观学院景观设计学硕士 / 天津愿景城市开发与设计策划有限公司总景观师、规划师

    CHU Junmin, male, was born in 1978. He is the Master of Urban Planning, Housing and International Cooperation in University Pierre Mendes France Grenoble 2, the Master of Landscape Design Theory and Methodology in Versailles National Higher Landscape School and the Chief landscape designer and planner of Tianjin Vision City Development and Design Planning Co., Ltd.

     

    张璐* / 1986年生 / / 天津大学建筑学院博士研究生 / 国家注册城市规划师、天津愿景城市开发与设计策划有限公司高级规划师

    通讯作者邮箱(Corresponding author Email):zhanglu_vision@foxmail.com

    ZHANG Lu (Correspondent Author), female, was born in 1986. She is a doctoral candidate from Tianjin University School of Architecture, the Certified Planner of China and a senior planner of Tianjin Vision City Development and Design Planning Co., Ltd.

     

    田恬 /1981年生 / / 法国国家注册景观设计师、天津愿景城市开发与设计策划有限公司副总景观师、规划师

    TIAN Tian, femal, was born in 1981. She is a Certified landscape designer of France and the Vice-chief Landscape designer and planner of Tianjin Vision City Development and Design Planning Co., Ltd.

     

    注:文中图纸、照片来源于天津市海河教育园区二期绿廊景观设计项目组

    Note: The drawings and pictures in this paper are provided by the project team of Landscape Design of Green Gallery of Tianjin Haihe Education Park Phase II


    摘要:面对京津冀地区日益严重的生态环境问题,重构区域景观生态安全格局、实现生态协同治理迫在眉睫。本文以天津市海河教育园区二期绿廊景观设计为例,在区域景观生态安全格局视角下,以生态绿廊为核心的大型生态单元建设的景观设计方法进行探索。针对所处沿海地区的地域性景观环境,提出了修复湿地系统重构区域生态格局、运用台田技术应对盐碱问题、景观先行带动文化复兴和以园养园营造生产型景观四项设计策略。这种区域性的景观视角和地域性的景观营造技术,对京津冀及其他地区的生态协同治理具有一定借鉴意义。

    关键词:景观生态安全格局;乡土台田技术;绿廊景观设计

     

    Abstract: As the ecological environment problems in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region become increasingly serious, it is extremely imminent to reshape the regional landscape ecological security pattern and achieve ecological coordinated management. Taking the Green Gallery of Tianjin Haihe Education Park Phase II as an example, the landscape design method for the construction of large-scale ecological unit focusing on ecological green corridor is explored from the viewpoint of regional landscape ecological security pattern. In view of the regional landscape environment in the coastal area, four design strategies are put forward, which are to repair wetland system, reshape regional ecological pattern, use terrace land technology to address the saline-alkali problem, boost cultural revival by landscape first, and build productive landscape by park cultivation. This kind of regional landscape viewpoint and regional landscape construction technology have been endowed with certain reference significance for ecological coordinated management in other regions of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei.

    Key words: Landscape Ecological Security Pattern; Local Terrace Land Technology; Green Corridor Landscape Design

     

    30年来,随着经济社会的快速发展、资源的不合理利用和建设用地的不断扩张,京津冀地区已经变成“生态重灾区”。据权威报告显示,河北省95%以上的平原河道干涸,90%的湿地消失[1]。短缺的地表水无法支撑高耗水的工、农业快速发展,大规模地下水的开采引起了地面沉降、海水倒灌和土地盐碱化加重等问题;城市的“大饼式”蔓延开发导致了水、气、土壤污染严重和城市雨洪泛滥等问题。日益加剧的生态环境问题已经危及到区域和国家生态安全。十八大以来,京津冀地区的生态协同治理作为国家战略,受到了党中央、国务院的高度重视。重构区域景观生态安全格局,实现区域的可持续发展已成为京津冀生态协同的核心目标。

    绿廊作为区域生态格局的重要组成部分,不仅承载着绿化、游憩等景观功能,还具有防洪安全、气候调节及生物多样性保护等生态功能。绿廊景观设计不应局限于绿廊本身景观系统的营造,更应从区域景观生态安全格局的视角,探索应对地域性生态问题、重塑地域生态系统的技术手段。


    1 项目背景

    天津市海河教育园区位于天津市双城中间绿色生态屏障区,是天津市政府推进京津冀地区生态协同、实现高质量绿色发展的重点区域。目前,受沿海地区地理气候条件影响,加之多年来城市无序扩张,区域内生态退化严重,生态环境亟待改善。

    1.1 场地的历史演进

    在中全新世后期至晚全新世早期,天津以东海河两岸的海岸线,从张贵庄-巨葛庄一线(距今3800年)向东推进至军粮城-泥沽一线(距今2500年)[2]。沧海桑田、陵谷变迁,场地所处的海河中游地区均地处这片退海之地。19世纪80年代,当地农民为应对盐碱问题,人工开挖马厂减河,引入上游黄土高原的甜水,以甜刷碱,化碱成腴,,满足了独特的优质稻的生长条件。天津南郊的小站镇因其特产小站稻而闻名,可以说,小站稻是区域生态协同的产物。然而,上世纪70年代以来,随着上游水库的兴建和工、农业用水的增加,上游来水不断减少,小站稻逐渐减少直至消失。场地所处的泛小站稻种植区内,水田也日益退化,呈现一种半田半水的景观形态。

    1.2 退海之地的生态危机

    作为退海之地,场地及周边区域面临滨海地区所存在共性生态问题。一是场地所在区域常年平均蒸发量是平均降水量的三倍多,且雨水多集中在夏季,造成区域夏涝冬旱的问题。加之城市开发割裂了场地内原有丰富的水脉,场地受到严重的雨洪威胁。二是土壤盐碱、浅层地表水高,造成的种树难、养树难问题。勘察发现场地内土壤PH值介于8.18.5之间,地下潜水静止水位埋深仅1 m2.5 m,乔木生长非常困难,仅道路与河道两侧地势较高区域有树木分布。三是场地总体地势较低洼,大部分区域高程位于1.6 m3 m,平均高程仅2 m左右,为保证雨洪安全和植被生长,绿化施工对客土需求多,景观造价普遍较高。

    1.3 场地现状与规模

    项目所处海河教育园区,位于天津市中心城区与滨海新区之间的海河中游南岸。园区定位为我国职业教育改革创新示范园区、天津市高端科技研发创新示范区和海河南岸生态宜居示范社区。园区采用一廊两翼的布局结构,其中南北贯穿园区中部的中央生态绿廊,平均宽度约800 m。该项目区位于中央生态绿廊中段、天津大学与南开大学新校区之间,是园区生态系统的枢纽,也是城市发展主轴与南北生态通廊的交点与关键点。项目景观总面积约2 289 800 m2,其中陆地面积约1 452 700 m2,水体面积约837 100 m2(图1)。

     

    说明: 总平面图

    1 海河教育园区二期绿廊景观设计总平面图

    Figure 1 General Plan of Green Gallery Landscape Design for Haihe Education Park Phase II

     

    2 挑战与目标

    作为区域生态协同的重要节点,如何应对园区开发面临的雨洪问题,重构生态单元的景观生态安全格局并与区域景观生态体系相融合;从退海之地到稻米种植区,再到旱田鱼塘混合区,如何应对退海地区土壤盐碱等生态问题,降低建设成本、塑造特色景观风貌;作为教育园区的中央生态廊道,如何与两翼的校区及城市生活片区产生生态性和功能性互动,提升人才吸引力;面对近期建设经济性与远期城市生长需求间的平衡,如何实现经济社会的可持续发展,都是项目面临的近期与远期挑战。

    面对上述问题,设计团队提出了四项核心设计目标。

    1将绿廊景观与大型生态单元建设相结合,实现城市新区建设与区域景观生态安全格局的有机融合,为绿色生态屏障区建设作出示范。

    2)应对沿海地区生态问题,在解读地域性景观特质的基础上,探索重构景观生态格局的技术手段,塑造具有北方水乡特征的景观环境。

    3)连接场地的历史与未来,传承乡土农耕文化、推动校园人文交流,实现自然生态与都市生活的和谐统一,以景观带动区域文化复兴。

    4)降低公园近期建设与持续运营成本,并为区域长远发展预留空间,打造低碳、高效、经济、持续的景观系统。

     

    3 设计策略

    为实现上述设计目标,项目景观设计从区域景观生态安全格局出发,提出了修复湿地生态、重构区域生态格局、运用台田技术应对盐碱问题等技术手段,解决城市生长过程中的生态问题,维护生态安全;同时提出了景观先行带动文化复兴,以园养园营造生产型景观的设计理念,应对城市发展的综合问题,实现社会、经济与生态环境的协同共生。

    3.1 修复湿地水文系统,构建生态基础设施,重构区域生态格局

    景观生态安全格局是一个多层次的、连续完整的网络,包括宏观的国土生态安全格局、中观的区域生态安全格局和微观的城市及片区生态安全格局。京津冀地区所处的海河流域是一个各类自然要素相对完善的生态系统,所包含的山、水、林、田、湖、海是一个生命共同体。其景观生态安全格局的基础是以水网为骨架,山水格局、河流水系、湿地系统、绿道系统等多元要素叠加的复合型生态树网状结构(图2a)。流域内的主干河道构成生态树网的干支,次级水网、生态廊道系统分不同等级去完善生态树网的结构,大型湿地及重要生态建设单元构成生态树网上的果实。

    项目位于天津市双城中间绿色生态屏障区的卫南洼湿地绿廊北端,是流域次级生态树网的重要组成部分,与其两翼的开发片区共同构成了一个约占地20 km2的大型生态建设单元(图2b)。设计将中央生态绿廊与其所在的生态单元进行统筹规划,沿绿廊两翼的天津大学、南开大学及几所高职学校等开发地块建设环状护校河,护校河与中央生态绿廊的河湖水系联成一体,形成湿地河网体系(图2c),并通过周边骨干河网洪泥河、卫津河以及大沽排污河融入到流域生态树网结构中,形成海河流域生态树网结构中的重要生态果实。

    2 各层次生态树网络结构示意图

    Figure 2 Schematic Diagram of Ecological Tree Network Structure at All Levels

    园区内的湿地河网体系一方面可以作为生态基础设施系统,与传统的灰色基础设施系统相结合,净化、收集周边地块雨水,增强调蓄雨洪的能力,解决域内夏涝冬旱问题。同时通过水循环系统的建设,园区内的浇灌及景观水体可以全部利用雨水回补,年节水量达36万吨。另一方面结合水网建设绿道系统,蓝绿交织的海绵体营造出场景各异的水景空间,成为园区景观游憩系统的骨架(图3)。

    3 作为生态基础设施的水景空间

    Figure 3 Waterscape Space as Ecological Infrastructure

    3.2 运用乡土台田技术,应对盐碱问题,塑造湿地湖岛景观

    明清以来,天津沿海地区的农民为应对盐碱、雨洪等问题,经过人与自然的长时间互动,产生了地域性的乡土景观系统——台田。设计前期,对场地北侧北洋园村周边台田景观系统进行了研究,并对这一生态农业系统与区域景观生态格局的良性互动机制进行了总结(图4):挖土成塘,渗碱排盐,控制地下水位;填土成台,防止土壤返盐返碱;台面上植树、营村,在高台与坑塘之间依次形成旱地农业、湿地农业和生态湿地区。雨季,雨水汇集至湿地鱼塘,避免洪涝;旱季,收集的雨水回补村庄、农田。

    说明: 台田技术

    4 乡土台田景观系统示意图

    Figure 4 Schematic Diagram of Local Terraced Landscape System

     

    项目借鉴当地台田景观技术的传统智慧,将农业生产经验与城市生态修复相融合,营造具有地域特征的景观风貌。结合现状条件,在平均2 m高程的场地中,保留部分田廊的同时,因地制宜地将低洼区域加深,形成湿地湖泊,常水位控制在1.2 m左右;通过土方自平衡,在地形较高区域筑土成台,形成不同高度的矮丘,最高点达到了16 m高程,塑造出具有山水意向的湿地湖岛景观(图5)。

    说明: 湿地湖岛景观

    5 湿地湖岛景观模式示意图及建成效果

    Figure 5 Schematic Diagram of Wetland Lake Island Landscape Pattern as Well as Its Completion Effect

    为避免土壤盐碱和地下咸水对植被的影响,在高程2.5 m以上的区域种植乔木;从高处乔木种植区到低处湿地湖泊区,形成林田水草复合型的生态景观系统。运用乡土台田技术解决盐碱问题,可以在不使用工程化排盐措施的情况下,提高植被成活率、降低造价。据统计,公园建成四年来,树木成活率达95%以上,公园每平米景观造价仅174元。

    3.3 扶农理水造园,兴学振文营城,景观先行带动文化复兴

    场地所在区域作为天津南部主要的农业种植区,农耕文化延续已久。设计在传承当地农业技艺的同时,保留并提升洪泥河与天津大学之间的农田肌理,理水造园、植树营田,打造复合型、生态化的都市休闲农业走廊(如图6)。将保留的农田改造为都市果园,以农业生产为基础,拓展林下经济,开发农业体验和科普教育活动,为当地农民提供再就业机会,也为新居民提供乡土文化体验的空间。沿洪泥河西侧建设体验式景园带,定期举办园艺展览、设计竞赛等城市活动,通过公共艺术事件,提升城市活力,带动区域发展。

    说明: 都市农业走廊

    6 都市休闲农业走廊建成效果

    Figure 6 Completion Effect of Urban Leisure Agriculture Corridor

     

    作为教育园区的中央绿廊,项目区同样承载着校际交流、公共服务的功能。设计在天津大学与南开大学之间的中央湖区预留了2000 m长的标准皮划艇赛道,为学校及城市提供水上运动竞技场所。同时,结合地铁站预留了部分开发用地,远期规划为天南镇,为两校学术共享、服务共享搭建平台,在两校间延续百余年的合作与竞争中,为城市新区带来创新与发展。

    3.4 建设生产型景观,以园养园,协调生态建设与城市持续发展

    根据开发时序安排,本项目先期启动生态绿廊建设,后期随着两翼地块的相继开发,就业及居住人口逐渐增加。城市的生长变化要求公园应能提供弹性的结构,前期以生态涵养功能为主,后期逐步转向城市服务功能。因此,项目引入了生产型景观的设计及运营策略。前期小规格密植乔木,有利于控制成本,经测算一次性节省投资5000万元左右;中远期通过间疏苗木,未来十年可产出26万棵左右成年乔木,预计总收益超过两亿元,可用于补贴绿廊持续建设与维护成本。未来,配合远期城市发展与人流集聚,利用成熟的林下空间植入都市休闲场所,实现景观功能与城市功能共同生长(图7)。

     

    说明: C:\Users\ZL\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\INetCache\Content.Word\生产景观.jpg

    7 生产景观模式示意图

    Figure 7 Schematic Diagram of Productive Landscape Mode

     

    4 结语

    该项目于2010年立项,2012年启动建设,2015年施工完成。至今,生态环境培育已初具成效。林田水草复合型景观形成了从旱生到水生的多层次植被生境,为生物群落提供了栖息场所,有效修复了湿地生态系统。绿廊景观与两侧开发片区的开放空间系统作为一个生态单元统筹规划,重构了区域景观生态安全格局,实现了雨洪的有效管理和水资源的循环利用。景观作为生态基础设施先行建设,逐步推动园区发展;目前,园区已建成大专院校13所,出让居住地块12宗,公园服务人口超过15万人,初步实现了人才的吸引与区域价值的提升。

    该项目作为海河流域生态树网中的一个生态单元,充分挖掘了地域的台田景观系统,构建了微观的园区景观生态安全格局,并与所在流域的区域景观生态安全格局实现了有效衔接。项目对台田技术、雨洪管理、弹性生长、生产景观等造园方法的探索,对天津乃至京津冀地区生态协同圈的生态修复实践具有一定借鉴意义。但在其他景观环境下,因不同流域自然地理、社会经济、人类干扰方式不同,其景观环境构成也不尽相同,应该在深入解读其地域景观特质的基础上,重新构建适应当地环境的微观景观生态安全格局。此外,应从管理机构、管控制度、资金筹措、生态补偿等方面,建立流域尺度下生态协同的相关政策和制度,以保障区域生态环境治理的顺利实施。

    说明: C:\Users\ZL\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\INetCache\Content.Word\DSC06089.jpg说明: C:\Users\ZL\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\INetCache\Content.Word\DSC06105.jpg

    8 具有山水意向的湿地湖岛景观

    Figure 8 Wetland Lake Island Landscape with Landscape Intention

    说明: C:\Users\ZL\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\INetCache\Content.Word\DSC00663.jpg说明: DSC00710

     

    9 中央绿廊为两翼教育园区提供丰富的景观游憩空间

    Figure 9 The Central Green Corridor Offers Plentiful Space for Landscape Recreation for the Two-wing Education Park

    说明: C:\Users\ZL\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\INetCache\Content.Word\DSC06137.jpg说明: C:\Users\ZL\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\INetCache\Content.Word\a3 (6).jpg

    10 林田水草复合型景观改善区域生态环境

    Figure 10 The Compound Landscape of Forests, Fields and Aquatic Plants Improves the Regional Ecological Environment

     

    参考文献:

    1. 单之蔷.北京湾、河北湾:谁把中国的“风水宝地”玩砸了[J].中国国家地理,2015(02).

      Shan Zhiqiang. Beijing Bay and Hebei Bay: Who Smashed China's "Treasure Land of Fengshui" [J]. Chinese National Geography, 2015(02).

      [2]赵希涛,张景文,焦文强,李桂英.渤海湾西岸的贝壳堤[J].科学通报,1980(06):279-281.

      Zhao Xitao, Zhang Jingwen, Jiao Wenjiang, Li Guiying. Shell Ridge on the West Coast of Bohai Bay [J]. Chinese Science Bulletin, 1980(06):279-281.

       

      项目信息:

      项目地址:天津市津南区

      项目面积:2 298 800 m2

      项目委托:天津海河教育园区投资开发有限公司

      设计单位:天津愿景城市开发与设计策划有限公司、天津市城市规划设计研究院、天津境易环境景观设计有限公司

      设计团队:黄晶涛、褚俊民、田恬、王妤、王贤哲、张璐、马建、郭丽君、黄建、郑艳、黄敏瑞、张锦生、闫寒、刘洋、刘健、王杨

      设计时间:20119月~20127

      竣工时间:20154

       

      Project Information:

      Project Address: Jinnan District, Tianjin

      Site Area: 2,298,800 m2

      Project Entrustor: Tianjin Haihe Education Park Investment and Development Co., Ltd.

      Designers: Tianjin Yuanjing City Development and Design Planning Co., Ltd., Tianjin Urban Planning & Design Institute, and Tianjin Jingyi Environmental Landscape Design Co., Ltd.

      Design Team: Huang Jingtao, Chu Junmin, Tian Tian, Wang Yu, Wang Xianzhe, Zhang Lu, Ma Jian, Guo Lijun, Huang Jian, Zheng Yan, Huang Minrui, Zhang Jinsheng, Yan Han, Liu Yang, Liu Jian, Wang Yang

      Design Time: September 2011 - July 2012

      Completion Time: April 2015

       

       

      In the past 30 years, resulting from the rapid economic and social development, the irrational use of resources and the continuous expansion of construction land, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region has become an "severely afflicted ecological area". With reference to authoritative reports, over 95% of Plain River channels in Hebei Province have dried up with 90% of wetlands have disappeared [1]. Shortage of surface water cannot conduce to the rapid development of high-water consuming industry and agriculture. Large-scale groundwater exploitation has triggered problems such as land subsidence, seawater backflow, and increased land salinization; the "pie-shaped" spread and development of the city has resulted in serious water and soil pollution and flooding of the city. The increasingly worsening ecological environment problem has endangered the regional and even national ecological security. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei have attached great importance to ecological coordinated governance as a national strategy. It has become the core goal of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei ecological coordination to reshape regional landscape ecological security pattern and achieve regional sustainable development.

      As a significant part of regional ecological pattern, green corridor not merely carries landscape functions such as greening and recreation, but is provided with ecological functions such as flood control for safety, climate regulation, biodiversity protection, etc. The landscape design of the green corridor should not be confined to the construction of the landscape system of the green corridor itself, but should explore the technical means to address the regional ecological problems and reshape the regional ecosystem from the viewpoint of the regional landscape ecological security pattern.

       

      1 Project Background

      Situated in the green ecological barrier area between two cities of Tianjin, Tianjin Haihe Education Park is a key area for Tianjin Municipal Government to boost the ecological coordination of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei and achieve high-quality green development. Currently, by reason of the influence of the geographical and climatic conditions in coastal areas and the disorderly expansion of cities over the years, the ecological degradation in the area is serious and the ecological environment desperately awaits to be enhanced.

      1.1 Historical Evolution of the Site

      From the late Middle Holocene to the early Late Holocene, the coastline on both sides of the east Haihe River of Tianjin pushed eastward from the Zhangguizhuang-Jugezhuang Line (3800 years ago) to the Junliangcheng-Nigu Line (2500 years ago) [2]. Along with the vicissitudes of time, changes of mountains and valleys, and human settlement and regression, the middle reaches of Haihe River, where the site is located, are all situated in this sea regression area. In the 1880s, to address the problem of salt and alkali, local farmers artificially excavated the Machangjian River and introduced the sweet water from the upper Loess Plateau. The sweet water was used to brush the alkali and turn the alkali into fat, forming unique growth conditions for high-quality rice. Xiaozhan Town in the Southern Suburb of Tianjin is famous for its specialty Xiaozhan rice, which can be said to be the product of regional ecological coordination. Nevertheless, since the 1970s, due to the construction of the upstream reservoirs and the increase of water for industry and agriculture, the upstream inflow of water has been continuously reduced, and Xiaozhan rice has gradually decreased until it disappears. The paddy field surrounding the Xiaozhan rice planting area where the site is situated is also deteriorating day by day, presenting a landscape pattern of half field and half water today.

      1.2 Ecological Crisis in Lands of Sea Regression

      As a place of sea regression, the site and surrounding areas are facing common ecological problems in coastal areas. First, the annual average evaporation in the area where the site is situated is over 3 times of the average precipitation, and the rainwater is mostly concentrated in summer, triggering the problem of waterlogging in summer and drought in winter. Apart from that, the urban development has split the original abundant water veins in the site, and the site is threatened by serious rain and flood. Second, there exist the problems of difficult planting and raising trees arising from saline soil and high surface water. The investigation reveals that the PH value of the soil in the site is between 8.1 and 8.5, the buried depth of the underground diving still water level is only 1 meter to 2.5 meters, and the growth of trees is rather difficult. Currently, trees are only distributed in high-lying areas on both sides of roads and rivers. Third, the overall terrain of the site is relatively low-lying, with the elevation of most areas ranging from 1.6 meters to 3 meters, with an average elevation of only approximately 2 meters. To guarantee the safety of rain and flood and the growth of vegetation, greening construction requires more foreign soil and the landscape cost is generally high.

      1.3 Status and Scale of the Site

      Haihe Education Park, where the project is situated, is on the south bank of the middle reaches of Haihe River between Tianjin's downtown area and Binhai New Area. The park is positioned as China's vocational education reform and innovation demonstration park, Tianjin demonstration zone for research&development and innovation of high-end science and technology, and ecological livable demonstration community on Haihe south bank. The park is subject to the layout structure of "one corridor and two wings". The central ecological green corridor runs through the middle of the park from north to south, with an average width of approximately 800 meters. The project area is situated in the middle section of the central ecological green corridor, between Tianjin University and the new campus of Nankai University. It is the hub of the park's ecosystem and is also the intersection and key point of the main axis of urban development and the north-south ecological corridor. The total landscape area of the project is approximately 2,289,800 square meters, of which the land area is approximately 1,452,700 square meters and the water area is approximately 837,100 square meters (Figure 1).

       

      2 Challenges and Goals

      As a vital node of regional ecological coordination, how to address the rain and flood problems faced by the park development, reshape the landscape ecological security pattern of ecological units and integrate it with the regional landscape ecosystem; how to address the ecological problems such as saline-alkali soil in the sea regression areas, decrease the construction cost and shape the characteristic landscape style from the sea regression areas to the rice planting area and then to the mixed area of dry land fish pond; as the central ecological corridor of the education park, how to create ecological and functional interaction with the two-wing campuses and urban living areas to enhance the attractiveness of the project over talents; facing the balance between the short-term construction economy and the long-term urban growth demand, how to achieve the sustainable economic and social development is both the short-term and long-term challenges the project faces.

      In consideration of the above problems, the design team has proposed 4 core design goals.

      1) To combine the green corridor landscape with the construction of large-scale ecological units in a bid to achieve the organic integration of the construction of new urban areas and the regional landscape ecological security pattern, setting a good example for the construction of green ecological barrier areas.

      2) To address the ecological problems in coastal areas, explore the technical means to reshape the landscape ecological pattern premised on interpreting the characteristics of regional landscape and shape the landscape environment with the characteristics of northern water villages.

      3) To connect the history and future of the site, inherit the local agricultural civilization, facilitate the cultural exchange on campus, achieve the harmonious unity of natural ecology and urban life, and boost the revival of regional culture with landscape.

      4) To lower the cost of park construction and sustainable operation in the near future, and reserve space for the long-term development of the region and build a low-carbon, efficient, economic and sustainable landscape system.

       

      3 Design Strategies

      With a view to achieve the above-mentioned design goals, the project landscape design, proceeding from the regional landscape ecological security pattern, proposes to restore wetland ecology and reshape the regional ecological pattern, and to solve the ecological problems in the process of urban growth and maintain ecological security by employing technical means such as terrace land technology to address saline-alkali problems; simultaneously, it comes up with the design concepts of landscape leading to cultural revival and park cultivation to create productive landscape, in a bid to address the comprehensive problems of urban development and achieve the coordinated symbiosis of society, economy and ecological environment.

      3.1 Repair the Hydrological System of Wetlands, Construct Ecological Infrastructure and Reshape the Regional Ecological Pattern

      Landscape ecological security pattern is a multi-level, continuous and complete network, including macro-level land ecological security pattern, meso-level regional ecological security pattern and micro-level urban and district ecological security pattern. Haihe Basin in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region is a relatively perfect ecosystem with a variety of natural elements, of which the mountains, water, forests, fields, lakes and seas are a community of life. The landscape ecological security pattern is premised on a composite ecological tree network structure with water network as the framework and multiple elements such as landscape pattern, river system, wetland system, greenway system, etc. (Figure 2a). Main rivers in the basin form the main branches of the ecological tree network. Secondary water networks and ecological corridor systems are divided into different levels to enhance the structure of the ecological tree network. Large wetlands and significant ecological construction units form the fruits of the ecological tree network.

      The project is situated at the northern end of the green corridor of the Weinanwa Wetland in the green ecological barrier area between two cities of Tianjin. It is a significant component of the secondary ecological tree network of the river basin and forms a large ecological construction unit covering an area of approximately 20 square kilometers in conjunction with the development areas on its two wings (Figure 2b). In the design, the central ecological green corridor and its ecological units are planned as a whole. Tianjin University, Nankai University and several higher vocational schools and other development plots along the two wings of the green corridor will build a ring-shaped school-protective river. The school-protective river will be linked with the river and lake systems of the central ecological green corridor to form a network system of wetland rivers (Figure 2c). Besides, through the surrounding backbone river networks of Hongni River, Weijin River and Dagu Drainage River, it will be integrated into the ecological tree network structure of river basin to form significant ecological fruits in the ecological tree network structure of Haihe Basin.

      On the one hand, the wetland river network system in the park can be regarded as an ecological infrastructure system, which can purify and collect rainwater from surrounding plots, enhance the capacity of regulating and storing rainwater and flood, and solve the problems of summer waterlogging and winter drought in the region in combination with the traditional gray infrastructure system. Simultaneously, all the irrigation and landscape water bodies in the park can be replenished with rainwater through the construction of the water circulation system, saving 360,000 tons of water annually. On the other hand, the blue-green interweaved sponges create waterscape spaces with different scenes in combination with the construction of the greenway system with the water network, becoming the framework of the park landscape recreation system (Figure 3).

      3.2 Use Local Terrace Land Technology to Address the Saline-alkali Problem and Shape the Wetland Lake Island Landscape

      Since the Ming and Qing dynasties, to address the problems of salt and alkali, rain and flood, farmers in Tianjin coastal areas have, after a long period of interaction between man and nature, produced a regional local landscape system - terrace land. In the early stage of the design, the landscape system of the terrace lands around Beiyang park village on the north side of the site was studied, and the benign interaction mechanism between this ecological agricultural system and the regional landscape ecological pattern was summarized (Figure 4): digging into ponds, seeping alkali and discharging salt to control the underground water level; filling the soil into a platform to prevent the soil from returning salt and alkali; planting trees on the platform and building villages, forming dry land agriculture, wetland agriculture and ecological wet areas in turn between the high platform and the pond. In the rainy season, collecting rainwater into wetland fish ponds to avoid flooding; during the dry season, the collected rainwater will make up for villages and farmland.

      The project creates a landscape style with regional characteristics by drawing on the traditional wisdom of local terraced landscape technology and combining agricultural production experience with urban ecological restoration. In light of the current conditions, in the site with an average elevation of 2 meters, while retaining some of the field corridors, the low-lying areas will be deepened based on local conditions to form wetlands and lakes, with the normal water level controlled at approximately 1.2 meters; through the self-balancing of earthwork, terrace lands are built in areas with high topography, forming low hills of different heights, with the highest point reaching 16 meters, creating wetland lake island landscape with landscape intention (Figure 5).

      With a view to avoid the influence of saline-alkali soil and underground saline water on vegetation, trees are planted in areas with elevation above 2.5m; from the high tree planting area to the low wetland and lake area, a mixed ecological landscape system of forest land and aquatic plants takes shape. Solving the problem of saline-alkali by the local terrace land technology can raise the survival rate of vegetation and decrease the cost without using engineering measures of salt removal. Statistically, over the four years since the park was built, the survival rate of trees has reached above 95%, and the cost per square meter of the park is only 174 yuan.

      3.3 Help Farmers to Manage Water and Build Parks, Construct Schools, Boost Culture and Revitalize the City, and Landscape will Drive Cultural Revival

      As the main agricultural planting area in southern Tianjin, the area where the site is situated has a long history of agricultural civilization. While inheriting the local agricultural skills, the design preserves and enhances the farmland texture between Hongni River and Tianjin University, manages water and builds fields, and plants trees and manages farms so as to create a compound and ecological urban leisure agriculture corridor (as displayed in Figure 6). It transforms the reserved farmland into an urban orchard, expands the undergrowth economy premised on agricultural production, develops agricultural experience and popular science education activities, offer re-employment opportunities for local farmers, and also furnish space for new residents to experience local culture. Besides, it constructs an experiential scenic zone along the west side of Hongni River, organizes regular urban activities such as horticultural exhibitions and design competitions and enhances the vitality of the city and boosts regional development through public artistic events.

      As the central green corridor of the education park, the project area also carries the functions of intercollegiate communication and public services. The design has reserved a 2000-meter-long standard canoe track in the central lake area between Tianjin University and Nankai University, thus furnishing water sports venues for schools and the city. Meanwhile, part of the development land has been reserved in combination with the subway station. The long-term plan is to build Tiannan Town, which will set up a platform for academic sharing and service sharing between the two schools. In the cooperation and competition between the two schools lasting over 100 years, it will bring innovation and development to the new urban area.

      3.4 Construct Productive Landscape, Cultivate the Park with Parks and Coordinate Ecological Construction and Sustainable Development of the City

      Based on the development schedule, the project will commence the construction of ecological green corridor in the early stage, and the employment and residential population will gradually increase following the successive development of two-wing plots in the later stage. The growth and change of the city require that the park be able to furnish a flexible structure, giving priority to the function of ecological conservation in the early stage and gradually turning to the function of urban services in the later stage. Thus, the project has introduced the design and operation strategy of productive landscape. Small-scale dense planting of trees in the early stage avails cost control, and it is estimated that the investment will be saved by approximately 50 million yuan in one lump sum; through thinning seedlings in the medium and long term, approximately 260,000 adult trees will be produced in the ten years to come, with a total estimated revenue of over 200 million yuan, which can be used to subsidize the cost of sustainable construction and maintenance of the green corridor. In the future, in cooperation with the long-term development of the city and the concentration of people, mature undergrowth space will be used to implant urban leisure places in a bid to achieve the co-growth of landscape functions and urban functions (Figure 7).

       

      4 Conclusion

      The project was initiated in 2010, commenced in 2012 and completed in 2015, and up till now, the cultivation of ecological environment has begun to produce preliminary results. The compound landscape of forests, fields and aquatic plants has formed a multi-layer vegetation habitat from xerophyte to aquatic, furnishing a habitat for biological communities and effectively repairing the wetland ecosystem. The regional landscape ecological security pattern is reconstructed by planning the green corridor landscape and the open space system in the development areas on both sides as a whole ecological unit, thereby realizing the effective management of rain and flood and the recycling of water resources. Landscape, as an ecological infrastructure, will be built first and gradually boost the development of the park; currently, the park has built 13 colleges and universities, assigned 12 residential plots, and served over 150,000 people, initially strengthening the attraction towards talents and the promotion of regional value.

      As an ecological unit in the ecological tree network of Haihe Basin, the project has fully excavated the terrace land landscape system of the region, built a micro landscape ecological security pattern of the park, and effectively connected with the regional landscape ecological security pattern of the basin where it is located. The project exploration of park building methods such as terrace land technology, rain and flood management, flexible growth and productive landscape has endowed certain referential significance to the ecological restoration practice of Tianjin and even the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei ecological coordination circle. Nevertheless, in other landscape environments, since the natural geography, social economy and human interference modes are different in different basins, the environment compositions of landscapes are not entirely the same as well. Therefore, it is necessary to rebuild a micro landscape ecological security pattern suitable for the local environment after having made a profound interpretation of the characteristics of its regional landscape. Apart from that, relevant policies and systems for ecological coordination at the basin level should be worked out in view of management organization, management and control system, fund raising and ecological compensation, in a bid to guarantee the smooth implementation of regional ecological environment management.

       

       

     

    上一条:演绎“荒诞”色彩的实验性花园——肖蒙国际花园艺术节年度设计大奖作品“旭日东升” 下一条:基于多评准决策的都市公园生态系统服务评估-以台中市公园为例

    关闭