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    演绎“荒诞”色彩的实验性花园——肖蒙国际花园艺术节年度设计大奖作品“旭日东升”
    2019-08-21  点击:[]

    演绎“荒诞”色彩的实验性花园——

    肖蒙国际花园艺术节年度设计大奖作品“旭日东升”

    Performing Satire in Experimental Garden Design—

    Chaumont International Garden Festival Award-Winning Garden “Levant”

    田恬 王笛

    TIAN Tian, WANG Di

     

    田恬 / 1981 / / 湖南长沙人 / 法国国家认证景观设计师 / 天津愿景城市开发与设计策划有限公司 / 研究方向为风景园林规划设计与理论

    TIAN Tian, female, born 1981 in Changsha Hunan, diplomépar le gouvernement DPLG (ENSP Versailles), is the principal landscape architect at Vision City Development & Design, Tianjin, China. Her research focuses on landscape architecture design and theory.

     

    王笛 / 1988 / / 湖南长沙人 / 布林莫尔学院城市发展与结构研究学士 / 华盛顿大学( 圣路易斯) 比较文学系 博士候选人 / 研究方向为世界文学、古典讽刺文学

    WANG Di, female, born 1988 in Changsha Hunan, is a PhD candidate in Comparative Literature at Washington University in St. Louis. Her research focuses on world satirical literature from ancient Rome to early modern China. She also holds a BA in Growth and Structure of Cities from Bryn Mawr College, PA, USA.

     

    摘要:近年来,花园艺术节盛行于世界各地,1992 年成立的肖蒙国际花园艺术节已成为全球花园和园艺创作领域的创意实验室。天津市城市规划设计研究院团队的设计师创作的花园作品“旭日东升”(Levant)获得 2017 年肖蒙评委会颁发的年度设计大奖。作品从女性主题构想出发,用“荒诞”的艺术手法结合材料的新颖组合与搭配,构造出一座极富戏剧感染力的舞台式花园。不同于常规的展览式花园,作品对主题的深层次探讨和“荒诞”演绎激发了观展者的创造力及想象力,邀请观展者与园林互动,一同批判并重新诠释刻板美学印象。肖蒙这一重要文化实践说明花园展应致力于坚持不懈地挖掘并探究花园艺术的当代目标和现实意义,启迪与传播审美价值是参展设计师的终极课题。

    关键词:国际花园节;花园艺术;园林展;茉莉花;女性;讽刺艺术;肖蒙;法国

     

    Abstract: In recent decades, garden festivals have become a popular platform for displaying garden design in many parts of the world. Since its founding in 1992, the Chaumont International Garden Festival has been a laboratory for contemporary garden and landscape design worldwide. In 2017, “Levant”, designed by Tian Tian and Wang Di, and sponsored by the Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute, won the Prize for Design at the Chaumont Festival. Focusing on the topic of women, “Levant” dramatizes and performs the garden by using satirical methods and aesthetics and innovative arrangement of landscape and building materials. Unlike conventional display gardens, “Levant” engages in a multi-layered conversation about the chosen theme and topic. Its satirical performance inspires the creativity and imagination of the viewers. It invites them to interact with the landscape and to criticize and reinterpret “stereotypical” aesthetics and ideas. A few take-aways from the Chaumont Festival experience: 1) The purpose of garden festivals is to discover and explore the meaning of contemporary garden design and practice. 2) To inspire and spread conversation about aesthetics and ideas should be the ultimate goal of garden festival designs.

    Key words: international garden festival; garden art; garden show; jasmine; women; satire; Chaumont-sur-Loire; France


    1 项目背景

    肖蒙城堡领地(Château de Chaumont-sur-Loire)位于法国卢瓦尔河谷,一处茂盛的植被和壮丽的城堡建筑群交相辉映的风景带。该地区被联合国教科文组织指定为世界文化遗产。坐落于此的肖蒙城堡有着三重身份:世界建筑遗产、当代艺术中心和国际花园艺术节举办地,使它成为了一个国际知名的创新聚点。每年来自世界各地的设计师把景观、园艺以及多学科交叉式的前沿艺术一起带到肖蒙。颇负盛名的肖蒙国际花园艺术节从 1992 年至今已举办 28 届,创造了 700余个面向未来的绿色空间样板。艺术节以花园为载体,以极其开放的姿态为艺术争论提供舞台,为理想的栖居提供一个实验场地(图 1)。

    1 肖蒙古堡(© 王力)

    Figure 1 Château de Chaumont (© Wang Li)

    2 2017 年度主题——“花的力量”

    每年,肖蒙花园艺术节主办方会向全球参赛的设计师提出一个新颖的设计主题,如同“命题作园”竞赛[1]。从同一主题出发,参赛者经过自己独特的解读和深入思考创作出“有生命的艺术品”。这种概念性主题的设置方式不仅能刺激参赛者深入探索当代花园的新目标和意义,也有效地引导观展者进入思维构想与艺术表达的多维碰撞和深层体验。

    2017 年的主题为“花的力量”(Flower Power[2]。在不同时代、文化的各类艺术文学作品中都充斥着花的意象。大自然的鬼斧神工造就了这个兼具完美形态、无穷多样性和神秘象征意义的物种。花的美、香、鲜艳、脆弱、绽放、败落都有着令人着迷的魅力,既精致柔美又充满力量。

    21 世纪的花园艺术将如何看待和评价花中蕴含的令人迷恋、震慑且引人注目又治愈的能量?设计师又如何提炼、利用、延展“花的力量”来对话观展者,创造美学诗意?2017 年入选的 20 个设计作品,用大胆别致且极富当代性的场景呈现出关于花的多维诠释和审美创新。

    在艺术节的园区里,人与花之间相互依存的关系被大胆又幽默地再现,引起共鸣、议论的同时也激发质疑、反思。在肖蒙,花园艺术是一个开放的概念。20 份风格迥异的设计作品组成了一场花的盛会。就像小王子与他的玫瑰,每位设计师都试图用设计语言诠释心中独一无二的花和花园。设计作品的地缘不同、文化不同、个体不同,却集聚在卢瓦尔河谷,一同赞颂和吸取花的力量。


    3 2017 年度设计大奖——“旭日东升”

    天津市城市规划设计研究院团队以女性主题花园作品——“旭日东升”成功入选,并在获选实施的 20 个花园作品中获得评委会颁发的年度设计大奖。

    3.1 理念概述

    花在东亚文化和美学意象中常与传统女性特征联系在一起。它承载的寓意繁多:贞洁、青春、端庄、优雅、坚韧。“旭日东升”试图突破这些僵化甚至矛盾的寓意。通过再现和重新想象女性共同体,在探讨、赞颂女性的同时提出一种对花的全新诠释。

    关于“平权”的呼吁早已是全球化自由主义者口中的陈词滥调。可就是在经济高度发达、科技创新不断开拓着人类文明新纪元的今天,女性的社会地位究竟是在进步、停滞还是倒退?在过去的一个世纪里,随着教育资源的普及,女性的教育程度有了质的飞跃,可是她们的经济参与机会和政治赋权却远远落后于男性。恐怕连社会学家们也无法给这些复杂的经济、政治现象做出一个标准解答。而作为设计者,我们更愿意用艺术的语言来描绘一个属于女性的精神世界,对她们的灵魂予以关怀(图 2)。

    3.2 方案综述

    指定的花园面积非常有限,只有 260 m2,四周有 2 m3 m 高的绿篱墙限定视觉边界。因此,空间转换上需尽量丰富、立体:通过在花园前景种植细小、白净的白茉莉和造型简约的绿植,突出材料和空间造型的多元立体,引导观展者充分探索空间和视角变换,达到引人入胜的效果。

    3.2.1 材料选择

    在肖蒙的历届作品中可以找到各式材料:塑料、橡胶、毛毡、玻璃等,种类应有尽有。有的作品甚至摒弃植物主体,完全无机化。该设计选择用根植于集体记忆中最为普通寻常的植物和事物来体现园林艺术的回溯与常新。茉莉花叶色翠绿,花色洁白,花朵珠圆玉润,香味浓厚。这种经常用来代表中国的花并非产自中国,而是来自于印度和巴基斯坦一带。大概在汉代,先通过海路引种到东南沿海地区,后传播到中华地区[3]。千百年来,茉莉花深受文人雅士吟诵和大众欣赏。

    在古印度,茉莉花是爱情的信使。茉莉花寄生于茶叶贸易,足迹遍及世界各地。从赏花到采花,从采花到制茶,再到流传千古的诗词,虽来自异邦,但茉莉花很快就植根中华,中华文化也赋予其新的含义。大自然的小外交家,茉莉花的芬芳又从东方传向了世界。

    细小、白净的茉莉花朵是花园的主角。模拟田园景观中涌动着星星点点的花朵。茉莉花是女性的渴望,是革命情怀的浪漫化身,更是大自然的信史——浸染着芬芳的茶叶把来自东方的讯息传布天下。流水在花圃的尽头汇成一湾池水。浓郁的花香渐变成一群错落有致的水生花丛。观展者的目光顺着水渠攀升,越过一层层鲜花的屏障,与天空对望。那些不安分的抱负、不羁的灵魂,归退于静思,蓄积起“花的力量”(图 34)。

    3.2.2 场景意境

    一场农妇与芭蕾舞女舞者的“荒诞”对话在这个题为“旭日东升”(Levant)的小花园里悄然发声。这是一幅用大自然的基础元素水、土、植被与天空混搭出来的农耕景致。重重叠叠的绿叶、星星点点的白茉莉下隐藏着波光粼粼的流水。几何规律的线形水渠将花圃排列成农田的形状,勾勒出花圃的棱和农耕妇女的日常,她们的忍辱求全、失意与期望随着农耕号子延绵于田间。芭蕾舞房的布景与人造田园景观相呼应。用刻板音律和公式化舞步将田间作业的单调艰辛艺术性地再现,形成一座浑然天成的“荒诞”舞台。

    2“旭日东升”竞赛图纸

    Figure 2 CAD Model of“ Levant”

    3 花境局部(© 王力)

    Figure 3“ Levant” Detail (© Wang Li)

    4 花境局部(© 王力)

    Figure 4“ Levant” Detail (© Wang Li)

    3.2.3 空间体验

    入口处的暗室把观展者隔置在主体园林之外,形成一道屏障(图 5)。观展者从暗室中无法看清花园内的秘密。神秘幽深的入口象征着私密的空间,激发好奇和联想。透过暗室的窗洞(图 67),可以窥看花园的数个局部。园内的景物被高低不等的留空分隔成形态各异的画面,几处葱翠靓丽,几处含蓄婉约。身处园内的观展者不时出现在这些片段式的场景中,成为农耕舞台的“共创者”。

    暗室中悬挂千百条粗细、长短不一,由假发编织成的“辫子”。掀开辫帘的刹那,直面田园景致,豁然开朗。园内延展的扇形水渠将观展者的视线尽可能地延长。斑驳的云影、迷蒙的薄雾、轻轻的微风带来丝丝清香,将观展者的视觉、听觉和触觉一起调动,唤起心中一阵涟漪。(图 89

    用镜面铝板组成的帷幕大大加强了花园的表现力和戏剧性,呼应农耕舞台的主题(图 1011)。镜面制造出各种怪诞的视角效果,变形的云、植物和观展者被镜面糅杂在一起,彰显花园的人造特征,与自然景象形成剧烈反差,凸显荒诞。在花园中央,红色土壤与水渠交错的舞台上有芭蕾舞把杆示意观展者细嗅芬芳、轻抚花朵、迈步水渠间(图 1213)。水渠的韵律是花园的节奏。凝思的大人和跳跃、嬉戏的孩童是舞台的主角(图 14~17),也是幕后的观众(图 5~7)。

    花园尽头的睡莲、荷花和芦竹向上攀升,引导观展者仰望天空。边界的视觉处理使人们忘记这个标准化场地的封闭性。从前景的“翠丛万点晴雪”到背景中摇曳多姿的水生植物,这个方寸花园是探究万物同生共存道理的一个小实验。

    4 结语

    在花园艺术节盛行的今天,出现了许多质疑这种艺术展示手法的声音。他们认为短期的展览性花园是一种异端,是一种浪费[4]。失去时间维度的花园只配被称为“展园”。这一观点也应引起重视。尤其是近年来展览式花园产业的兴盛看似一片繁荣,却暗藏隐忧。主题鲜明但表达形式单一的微缩集锦式园林不仅规模浩大、普遍缺乏创新意识与艺术性,而且重建设、轻运营管理,展后利用不充分。

    肖蒙花园艺术节是成功的,其繁荣了法国文化事业,活化了古迹保护也给花园展示行业提供了一些启示。首先,肖蒙其前瞻性的主题定位,低能耗的建设理念[5],坚持不懈的创新构成了其核心竞争力;其次,主办方的极其开放的姿态面向世界,尊重专业,集聚各方高手,提供了一处能够大胆实验和与同行真挚交流的平台;再有,主办方的常设管理机构提供了严格、公正的专业性监督和引导,以及高效的建设支持和管理,以保持自身的艺术先锋地位和文化影响力;并且,将艺术节活动延伸到相关的艺术创意等领域,设置长期性的园林教育、文献出版和其他艺术交流活动,使得艺术节的影响力得到持续的壮大,外延与内涵都不断发展,成为花园艺术节不竭的动力。

    5 入口暗室(© 王力)

    Figure 5 “ Levant” Entrance Room (© Wang Li)

    6 暗室窗洞(© 王力)

    Figure 6 Entrance Opening into the Garden (Inside Entrance) (© Wang Li)

    7 暗室窗洞(© 王力)

    Figure 8 Entrance Opening (Looking from the Garden Interior) (© Wang Li)

    8 扇形水渠(© 王力)

    Figure 8 Water Conduits (© Wang Li)

    9 水渠细节(© 王力)

    Figure 9 Water Conduit (Detail) (© Wang Li)

    10 镜面帷幕(© 王力)

    Figure 10 Curtain Wall (© Wang Li)

    11 帷幕细节(© 王力)

    Figure 11 Curtain Wall (Detail) (© Wang Li)

    1 The Setting

    Located in the Loire Valley in central France, Domaine de Chaumont-sur-Loire is a landscape where lush vegetation is interlaced with magnificent castles. The Valley is a UNESCO World Heritage site. Chaumont-sur-Loire has three overlapping identities: a site of historical architecture, a center for contemporary art and a venue for the International Garden Festival, making it an internationally renowned innovation hotspot. Every year, designers from all over the world bring to Chaumont their latest work in landscape and garden design and other forms of contemporary art.

    It has been 28 years since the prestigious international garden festival first opened its door in 1992, offering more than 700 green space designs throughout the years. Using “the garden” as its medium, the festival has provided a platform for open-minded aesthetic discourses and a laboratory for creating ideas about future habitat. (figure 1)

    2 The 2017 Theme—"Flower Power"

    Each year, organizers of the Chaumont International Garden Festival send out an invitation to the world of designers to solicit their response to a novel theme. The contest is devised in a way that resembles an essay competition [1]. Participants are asked to address a thematic question and through their creative interpretations arrive at unique works of garden art. The conceptual challenge inspires designers to engage deeply and reflectively with the new objectives and significance of contemporary garden design; meanwhile it also serves as a narrative guide for the visitors, effectively leading them into a physical and mental space of experimental art.

    The 2017 theme was "Flower Power"[2]. Historically, artistic and literary works from numerous cultures and time periods are overflowing with the imagery of flower. The splendid workmanship of nature has created this perfect botanical form which manifests in infinite diversity and manifold symbolisms. The beauty, the aroma, the livelihood, the fragility, the blooming and withering of flower has a mesmerizing potency that is delicate and gentle, and also enormously powerful.

    How should garden design in the 21st century reflect and appraise the mesmerizing and dangerous power of flower and its simultaneously therapeutic and fatal potency? How would designers distill, utilize and extend the "Flower Power" to communicate their ideas to the visitors and to create new aesthetics for garden designs? The 20 selected designs of the 2017 festival use bold and unique landscape of contemporary aesthetic qualities, showcasing a diverse range of conceptual interpretations of flower and aesthetic innovations.

    In the festival ground, the symbiotic relationship between humans and flowers is boldly and humorously represented, inspiring a wide range of sympathetic and critical responses and at the same time inviting sincere criticism and reflection. Garden art is an open concept in Chaumont. The 20 formally and stylistically unique answers bring about a grand gala of flowers. Like the Little Prince searching for his beloved rose, each team strives to use design language to realize their unique understanding of flower and garden design. Designers from different regions and cultures and with unique points of views gathered in the Loire Valley to soak up and celebrate the power of flower.

    3 The 2017 Award-Winning Garden —“Levant”

    The Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute team, representing the Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute, entered the festival with a women themed garden "Levant." It won the Prize for Design from the jury, out of the 20 gardens selected for 2017.

    3.1 Concept Overview

    In East Asian cultures and aesthetics, flower is often associated with traditional femininity, which carries multiple implications: chastity, youth, modesty, elegance and tenacity. "Levant" tries to break through these rigid and even contradictory implications. It recreates and reimagines the community of women. By critically and sympathetically engages the subject, it puts forward a new understanding of flower and of women.

    12 花园中央红色土壤与水渠交错的舞台(© 王力)

    Figure 12 Interwoven Pattern of the Red Soil and Water Conduits (© Wang Li)

    13 水渠的韵律是花园的节奏(© 王力)

    Figure 13 Rhythm of the Garden (© Wang Li)

    14 观众成为花园的主角(© 刘琳)

    Figure 14 Viewers are the Protagonists of the Garden (© Liu Lin)

    15 观众成为花园的主角(© 刘琳)

    Figure 15 Viewers are the Protagonists of the Garden (© Liu Lin)

    The call for "equal rights" has become a tired trope in the liberal world. In reality, while the economic gaps are closing in large parts of the world and scientific development is ushering human civilization into new eras; is the social status of women progressing, stagnating or regressing today? Women’s education has taken a qualitative leap forward thanks to the expansion of universal education in the past century, but women’s opportunities in economic and political participation are still far behind those of men. Even sociologists are struggling to explain the complex economic and political phenomena. As designers, we create a garden for women to inspire soul search about these difficult questions (figure 2).

    3.2 Design Overview

    The designated garden plot is very limited in space, only 260 square meters in total. It is surrounded by two to three meters tall hedge walls that delineate the visual boundaries. Therefore, the spatial and visual transitions should be as rich and varied as possible. We limit the foreground plant variety to simple white jasmine and green bushes, in order to highlight the diversity of building materials and spatial arrangements, to guide tourists to fully explore the garden, to transform their perspective and experience with each step forward.

    3.2.1 Material Selection

    A great variety of materials can be found in previous Chaumont gardens: plastic, rubber, felt, glass, etc. Some gardens even abandoned the focus on plants entirely, instead embracing inorganic materials. However, we chose the most ordinary plants and common things rooted in collective memory to acknowledge the resurging trends and enduring beauty of garden art.

    Jasmine has green leaves, white color, round flowers resembling small pearls, and subtle aroma. The "metamorphosis" of this humble "little thing" in the extensive historical memory intrigued us. Often used to represent China, Jasmine was not originated from China. It came from the region now is India and Pakistan. It was first introduced to the southeastern coast of China by sea, probably during the Han Dynasty, and then spread over all mainland China [3]. It has been appreciated by both the literati and the masses in poems and songs.

    In ancient India, jasmine served as the messenger for love. From Buddhist countries to China, it accompanied the tea trade and traveled around the world. From being an ornamental flower to a staple of the tea trade, and further immortalized by poetry passed down through the ages, although jasmine came from the foreign lands it took root in China. Chinese culture endowed it with new meanings. A little diplomat of nature, the fragrance of jasmine, spread from the Orient to the world.

    Small, white jasmine flowers are the protagonists of our garden. Speckled fragrance filled the simulated agricultural environment. Jasmine is the desire of women, the romantic embodiment of revolutionary sentiments, and a messenger of nature –jasmine scented tea sends messages from the Orient to the world. The small garden canals merge into a pool at the far end of the garden. The intense floral aromas gradually transition into a cluster of scattered aquatic flowers. The visual focus of the garden flows with the canals, crossing the barriers of flowers, climbing up towards the sky. Here, the restless ambitions and unruly souls return to a contemplative state and start to accumulate the "Flower Power" (figures 3&4).

    3.2.2 The Scene

    An absurd conversation between a peasant woman and a ballerina is quietly taking place in the small garden, an agricultural scene composed of water, soil, vegetation and sky, the basic elements of nature. Hidden under the thick jasmine bushes there are seven glittering water canals.

    The geometrically regular, linear canals arrange the flower beds into the shape of a farm field, outlining the contours of the field and the daily routines of peasant women. Their humiliation, frustration and aspiration ripple through the fields as work chants. An additional visual layer of ballet studio is superimposed on the artificial agricultural landscape. The hardship of monotonous fieldwork is reproduced in the form of rigid rhythms and formulaic dance steps, creating an absurd stage.

    16 观众成为花园的主角( ©刘琳)

    Figure 16 Viewers are the Protagonists of the Garden (© Liu Lin)

    17 观众成为花园的主角( ©王力)

    Figure 17 Viewers are the Protagonists of the Garden (© Wang Li)

    3.2.3 Spatial Experience

    The shaded entrance separates the viewers from the garden interior and forms a barrier (figure 5), preventing visitors from seeing the secrets of the main courtyard. The mysterious and secluded entrance is a metaphor for women’s private sphere. It insinuates certain associations and provokes strong reactions. Through the openings of the darkroom, one can have a peek into the garden (figures 6&7). The garden interior is divided into different sections by openings of various heights. Some sections open widely to the lush interior and others appear more discreet. Visitors inside the garden flicker in the fragmented scenes and become "cocreators" of the stage.

    In the darkroom, hundreds of "braids" made of wig with different thickness and length are hung from the ceiling. The moment the braids are lifted, visitors are exposed directly to the garden interior. The fan-shaped canal group inside the garden stretches the view. The mottled cloud shadow, the hazy mist and the subtle aroma brought by light breezes simultaneously stimulate the senses of the visitors and move them to reflect on the experience. (figures 8&9)

    The curtain made of reflective aluminum sheets largely enhances the expressive force and theatricality of the garden, highlighting the central theme – farm as stage (figures 10&11). The reflecting surface creates grotesque visual effects, where distorted clouds, plants and people are blended together, revealing the artificial qualities of the garden. It contrasts sharply with nature and thus highlighting the absurdity of the scene. In the middle of the garden, a stage crisscrossed with strips of red soil and canals, stands a ballet barre. It suggests the visitors to bend down and sniff the flowers, stroke the petals and stroll across the canals (figure 12&13). The rhythm of the canal conditions the pace of the garden. The contemplating adults and playing children are the protagonists of the stage (figures 14~17), as well as audience behind the scenes (figures 5~7).

    Waterlilies, lotus and reeds rise at the far end of the garden, guiding the visitors’ gaze towards the sky. This visual treatment of the boundaries makes people forget the closed nature of this standardized site. From the speckled jasmine bushes in the foreground to the swaying aquatic plants in the back, this small square garden is our little experiment that explores certain rules of cohabitation in the world of humanity and nature.

    4 Conclusion

    Nowadays when garden festival is in vogue, there are also many dissenting voices criticizing its method. They consider the short-term display garden a heresy and a waste [4]. A garden deprived of the dimension of time only deserves to be called a “display garden." We should take this point seriously, especially in recent years when the display garden industry seems to prosper. There are many hidden concerns. For example, the popular theme gardens often recycle tired expressions. They are often enormous in scale and generally lack the desire for innovation and artistic qualities. They invest heavily in construction but neglect aspects of operation and management. After the shows are over, the space generally remains underutilized. The Chaumont Garden Festival is successful because it helps promoting French cultural heritage and revives the cause of historic preservation. Its success story can shed some light on the display garden industry. First of all, Chaumont’s forward-looking subject matters, its advocacy on low energy consumption construction methods [5] and its persistent innovation constitute Chaumont’s core competencies. Secondly, the extremely open mindset of the organizers looking to the world and respecting expertise of all kinds provides a space for designers to make bold statements and encourages genuine communication. Chaumont attracts the best designers from around the world.

    Furthermore, Chaumont’s standing management team provides rigorous and unbiased professional supervision and guidance, as well as efficient construction support in order to ensure the quality of construction, and therefore Chaumont’s vanguard status and influence in the art world. In the long run, the festival activities expand into related artistic and social spheres, in forms of long-term commitment to horticultural education, literature publication and other art events. As Chaumont continues to expand its influence, to develop its content and outreach, it is becoming an inexhaustible force for the garden show industry.


    参考文献(References)

    [1] 林箐. 法国肖蒙城堡国际花园艺术节[J]. 风景园林. 2011 (03)

    LIN Qing.“ Chaumont-sur-Loire International Garden Festival.” Landscape Architecture. 2011(03)

    [2] Domaine de Chaumont-sur-Loire.“ Édition 2017 Flower Power - Le Pouvoir des Fleurs 20 Avril - 05 Novembre 2017.

    http://www.domaine-chaumont.fr/fr/festival-international-des-jardins/edition-2017-flower-power

    [3] 邱治平. 回顾和展望 记第20 届法国肖蒙城堡国际花园艺术节[J]. 风景园林. 2011 (03)

    QIU Zhiping.“ Review and Outlook—The 20th Chaumont-sur-Loire International Garden Festival.” Landscape Architecture. 2011(03)

    [4] 张大敏. 感受花园——记22 届肖蒙城堡国际花园节[J]. 中国园林. 2014 (07)

    ZHANG Damin. “Gardens of Sensations—The 22nd International Garden Festival of Domaine de Chaumont-sur-Loire.” Chinese Landscape Architecture. 2014(07)

    (整理: 赵迪 译:毛莹)

     

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