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    中国古典园林中舟船主题及其文化意象探析
    2019-08-21  点击:[]

    中国古典园林中舟船主题及其文化意象探析

    The Analysis on the Theme of Boat and its Cultural Images in Chinese Classical Gardens

    刘彤彤 刘程明

    LIU TongtongLIU Chengming

     

    刘彤彤 / 1968 年生 / / 天津大学建筑学院教授、博士生导师 / 研究方向:古典园林思想史

    LIU Tongtong, born in 1968, female, is a professor and doctoral supervisor in the College of Architecture of Tianjin University. Research direction: intellectual history of classical gardens

     

    刘程明 / 1993 年生 / / 天津大学建筑学院 / 博士研究生

    LIU Chengming, born in 1993, female, is a PhD student in the College of Architecture of Tianjin University.


    摘要:舟船作为一种交通工具,也是园林造景的主题要素。本文通过梳理富有舟船意象的文学作品与古典园林主题景点,研究了舟船与园林造景的关联,辨析了舟船对园主人创作思想、文化内涵的影响。结合古典造园思想和隐逸文化的发展,梳理出舟船的两种文化内涵:物质载体,承载离愁别绪与山水之乐;精神蕴含,表达心灵自由、隐逸思想、舟船济人,并隐喻自勉自省。同时,总结后世造园活动中舟船意象的演变特征,突出强调欧阳修画舫斋的重要作用及其对中国造园的意义。中国园林“精神栖居”的本质在舟船意象中得到了充分展现。

    关键词:中国古典园林;舟船意象;隐逸文化;栖居


    Abstract: As a means of transportation, boats are also the main elements of landscape architecture. By sorting out the literary works and classical garden theme attractions rich in boat images, this paper studies the relationship between boat and garden landscaping, and discriminates the influence of boat on garden owners' creative ideas and cultural connotations. Combining the development of classical gardening thought and reclusive culture, this paper combs out two cultural connotations of boats. From the aspect of material, the boat carries the sorrow of parting and the joy of nature. From the aspect of spiritual connotation, it expresses the freedom of mind, the thought of seclusion, the thought of saving the people and also metaphors self-encouragement and self-reflection. At the same time, it summarizes the evolution characteristics of images of boats in the later gardening activities, emphasizing the important role of Ouyang Xiu's painting Fangzhai and its significance to Chinese gardening. The essence of spiritual dwelling in Chinese gardens is fully displayed in the image of boats and boats.

    Key words: Chinese classical gardens; boat image; reclusive culture; dwelling


    在中国古典园林中,存在多种以舟船为主题的园林建筑,如石舫、香洲等,是别有特色的园林景观。在先秦时期诗性思维下,舟船原本的实用功能逐渐转向审美,后深受儒家影响,逐渐拓展了隐逸文化的内涵,成为后世文学艺术中的特殊符号。唐代中隐思想的逐渐成熟使园林作为现实中的隐居环境成为可能。北宋欧阳修的《画舫斋记》将舟船作为特殊的造园主题引入园林创作,寓意舟船兼有“济难之用”和“舟行之乐”。明清之时,舟船意象成为江南私家园林和皇家园林之中普遍摹写的原型,舟船既是园林隐居文化的载体,也是山水之乐的一部分。本文通过梳理文学作品中的舟船创作以及古典园林中的主题景点,尝试对舟船意象在园林发展中的深刻影响进行讨论。


    1 舟船释义及其相关研究

    《辞海》对“舟”的释义主要有三,一为姓氏,二是作为名词指代船,另有作动词意为“乘船”。与之相近的词语主要有“船”(水上的主要交通工具以及类似船的物体)“舫”(并连的两船以及船的统称)“舸”(大船)“航”(舟船以及船的航行路线)“舴艋”(小船)“艅艎”(华丽的船)“槎”(木筏)“舣”(使船靠岸)“舠”(刀形的小船)等诸多不同形式的船及船的行驶状态;另外还用船的某一部分构件来指代船,如“舳舻”“桡”“棹”“桨”“橹”“篷”“柁”“舷”“帆”等。

    探讨文学作品中的舟船文化意象的研究成果较为丰富,集中在颠沛漂泊、离别伤感、隐逸与心性自由几个方面。关于园林中舟船元素的记载,多见以选编著作中所汇总的图文资料。建筑史、园林史专著对园林中的舟船造景进行了广泛的案例收集与讨论,并概括提及舟船主题的营造。区域性园林研究著作中多有提及舟船元素的造景与赏景作用。园林中舟船造景的专题研究主要是对空间形式的特征、内涵的总结概述、典型主题个案的讨论等方面。本文基于此,尝试从舟船意象的根源出发,对舟船意象从文学表达到造园实践的嬗变过程进行讨论。


    2 舟船意象文化内涵的嬗变及其根源

    先秦时期,在人类征服自然的过程中,舟船被作为工具使用。其早期形象是筏子与独木舟,河姆渡遗址中出现了船桨以及独木船泥塑模型。舟船的功能是日常出行和物资运送,《考工记》中记载有“作舟以行水”,《左传·僖公十三年》中有泛舟之役。另外,舟船也被用于战事,《竹书纪年》载:“覆其舟,灭之。”同时,舟船也作娱乐之用,《穆天子传》载有“天子乘鸟舟、龙舟”的活动。以龙舟、龙纹作为守护、防卫之意,符合趋利避害的心理。三国时期《洛神赋》之中,洛神所驾之舟车为龙凤样。舟船在后世发展之中逐渐被视为独立的审美对象。

    从先秦时期开始,舟船逐渐超越实用功能,广泛应用于诗歌绘画以及园林艺术的创作之中。接下来,主要从物质载体、精神蕴含两个方面对舟船意象文化内涵的嬗变过程及其内部根源进行梳理(图 1)。

    2.1 物质载体:离愁别绪与山水之乐

    舟船作为物质载体,产生了从寄托漂泊离愁的媒介,到水上豁达行旅生活的承载,到行舟观山水的载体的转变。伴随着诗性思维的发展,类比式的思考方式使人能够把自身生命体验投射在周围万物,众多客观事物就成为了“比德、比兴”的载体,进而成为“言志之诗”“抒情之语”中的元素,以同形同构的比兴原则广泛存在于诗歌之中。《诗经》中有许多“乘舟怀忧”的表现,有的表述男女情思,有的寄托漂泊不定的离愁别绪和心无所系的悲凉

    唐诗中将舟船这种漂泊人生寓所的意象进行了延伸。杜甫诗中的舟船是漂泊之中的休憩之所,正如南宋范成大所言:“沙头杜老舟”[3]。对比于杜甫的隐晦漂泊,白居易的“饱食起婆娑,盥漱秋江水”[4],着重刻画了水上行旅的生活内容,多了豁达与舒适。《琵琶行》中也频繁使用带有舟船的字眼,这在一定程度上奠定了舟船作为娱乐活动物质载体的基础,并使其欣赏主体从贵族延伸至文人,少了堂皇富丽而多了通俗细致。孟浩然以“棹里自成歌”[5]表达了山水审美趣味,“扁舟泛湖海”[6]将不计功名表现得尤为旷达,少了悲观情绪。清代张宝遍历数省,以行舟观赏的风景作为素材进行艺术创造,完成一百零三幅《泛槎图》,此时的行船成为观山水的重要载体。舟船超越了工具的物质性,成为山水之乐的一部分。

    2.2 精神蕴含

    2.2.1 心灵自由:方舟济河与虚舟纳物

    舟船作为心灵自由的精神载体,从庄子哲学中物与心的结合体演变到后世中虚舟的概念。《庄子》中“方舟而济于河,有虚船来触舟”的典故,强调的是虚静无为、克己寡欲的处世态度和思想。后世东晋庾蕴、陶渊明、谢灵运以及唐代孟浩然、杜甫、白居易诗歌中多次提到这一意象,以虚舟为标高进行自身修养的提升。比如“只见火光烧润屋,不闻风浪覆虚舟”(白居易《感兴二首》其一)表达出不争的超然态度;“澹然方寸内,唯拟学虚舟”(白居易《秋寒》)是以虚舟为学习对象,对精神境界进行了升华。

    2.2.2 隐逸思想:隐居求志与园居中隐

    随着儒学的发展,舟船意象融入到致仕、隐居方面,并产生了从隐居待时到在园中求中隐的园居方式的改变。《论语·公冶长》:“道不行,乘桴浮于海”表达了孔子儒学以行义、达道、待时为目的的隐逸思想。春秋时期的范蠡以五湖舟来隐居畅怀。继南朝的著名山水诗人谢朓以“既欢怀禄情,复协沧州趣”表达隐逸幽趣之后,白居易阐发了园居中隐之法。此思想的传承影响了北宋欧阳修的画舫斋,舟船作为一种特殊的造园元素引入到了园林创作活动之中。《画舫斋记》中对舟船意象提取了“济难而非安居”与“顺风恬波,傲然枕席之上”两种倾向,最终选择以后者作为园中舟船的寓意。此后,舟船意象在南宋园林的表达逐渐增多,更是广泛存在于明清私园之中。大多顺承画舫斋之意,具有赏景娱乐与怡情的功能,并基本兼具隐逸思想。种种引申意味,依旧囿于早已成熟于宋的园林舟船的解释范围之中。

    1 舟船意象文化内涵的嬗变

    Figure 1 The Evolution of the Cultural Connotation of Boat Image

    2 欧阳书院图

    Figure 2 Image of Ouyang Academy

    3 欧阳书院新图

    Figure 3 New Image of Ouyang Academy

    4 画舫澄波(滑县十二景之一)

    Figure 4 Huafang and Limpid Waves

    万历年间建秋声书院于欧阳修画舫斋遗址,

    欧阳书院为康熙年间易名 引自《重修滑县志》[8]

    2.2.3 舟船济人:入仕济民与宝筏度迷川

    这一类中,舟船意象结合《易》中入仕济民思想以及宗教教义等逐渐形成较为丰富的审美意象。《易·系辞下》中有“舟楫济不通”之言,《后汉书·郎顗传》中以“刳舟剡楫而济江海”来比喻“聘贤选佐以安天下”,以舟船作为媒介,传达出儒学入仕济民的思想,并一直延续到后世。孟浩然在“欲济无舟楫,端居耻圣明”的诗句中以舟船意象与济世相联系;李白则以“长风破浪会有时,直挂云帆济沧海”表达其对入仕有所作为之向往。佛教也存在以舟船作喻的现象,以宝筏喻佛法,多有借鉴禅佛义理的诗句,比如李白的“宝筏度迷川”[7]。园林建筑中,明代安氏西林则以旱船“一苇渡”象征达摩渡江传教典故[2]

    2.2.4 自勉自省:载舟覆舟与文人精神

    舟水之喻的意象深受文人精神的影响,从文学作品的讨论主题逐渐过渡到园林造景实践中来,强调以文人自居的自勉自省之意。《三国志·魏志》中有“深察东野之弊,留意舟水之喻”的记载,《荀子》中亦有“君者舟也,庶人者水也。水所以载舟,亦所以覆舟”的美刺之情。但是,此种寓意由于受到园主人士人身份的限制,并未在私园中得到广泛运用。将此种意象应用到造景实践的是清代皇家园林西苑画舫斋。画舫之意不拘泥于造景之用,在某种程度上,深受儒家学说中“内圣外王”的影响,以“譬如水载舟,前贤揭其旨”进行自勉自省,以史为鉴,完善自我;更是对以欧阳修为代表的文人阶层“穷也乐,通也乐”的文人精神的崇尚。

    5 画舫斋平面

    (引自《清代御苑撷英》[12]

    Figure 5 Plan of Huafang Zhai

    2:清代私园舟船意象记录

    Table 2 Records of Boat Image in Private Gardens in Qing Dynasty

    种类

    园记名称

    记录

    清代江南私家园林(部分摘录)

    岵园记

    台两偏一高榭,曰“定舫”,亦曰“吹雪”,历级而登,可以纵眺,明月时至,清风徐来。

    依水园记

    水中有画舫,具茶铛酒罏,载《汉书》《唐律》数卷,春雪初融,卧听撒网声飒飒然。

    盘洲记

    波间一壑,于藏舟为宜,作“艤斋”于檐后,四滨怪石,前后特起,曰:“云轩”、曰:“啸风岩”。北践柳桥,以蟠石为钓矶。侧顿数椽,下榻设胡床,为息偃寄傲之地。假道可登舟,曰:“西汻”。

    郭嵩焘日记

    学院署亦有八景:……一钟楼,一船房,一秋声馆。

    扬州画舫录 南园

    亭前为园中(木义)舟处,有画舫名曰:“移园”。

    扬州画舫录 筱园

    迨雍正壬子,浚市河,翰林倡众捐金,益浚保障湖,以为市河之蓄泄,又种桃插柳于两堤之上,会构是园,更增藕堂莲界,于是昔之大小画舫至法海寺而止者,今则可以抵是园而止矣。

    近园记

    又北,则鉴湖一曲,迤逦前行,过“虚舟”,入“容滕居”,渡小桥,到三梧亭。

    梅皋别墅图记

    其尤胜者,曰“春水船”。蹬路纡回,曲水环之。

    依绿园记

    其西修廊数折,有若方舟之浮于波面者,“水香簃”也。

    遂初园记

    楼阁亭榭,台馆轩舫,连缀相望,垣墙缭如,怪石嵚如,古木槎枿,……四方珍异之产咸萃。

    城南老屋记

    榭之西,有庐若舫,环植梅树,颜曰:“旧时月色”。

    渔隐小圃记

    由徛而入,左为系舟,右为水木清华榭。

    晚香林记略

    一日,于藩篱外瓦砾中,见有石挺然,如舟一叶,翳以苍苔,浅深莫测。

    惠荫八景序

    渔舫,曰:“柳阴系舫”;琴台,曰:“松荫眠琴”;一房山,曰:“屏山听瀑”……

    邓尉山庄记

    潭上可憩息者,右曰:“银藤舫”,簷际古藤纠结,绿阴如幄。

    可园记

    左平台,临池可钓;右亭作舟形,曰:“坐春舻”,可(听)风,可观月。

    半园记

    其西南隅,有屋如舟,颜曰:“不系舟”。

    怡园记

    轩之东,有屋如舟,署曰:“舫斋赖有小溪山”,涪翁句也。

    古猗园记

    东为采香廊,廊尽有亭,亭之左,作水周之轩,为“书画舫”,在戏鹅池之上。

    复园记

    左循廊数步,有室如船曰壑舟,旁临勺溪,舟之前……有临溪之乐,无陆沈之虑。

    重修曝书亭记

    亲访遗址,问潜采堂,已鞠为茂草,而其亭及□舫、藤花馆犹有存者……

    郭嵩焘日记

    记嘉兴陈园

    其最胜者为“溪山真意轩”,后归休宁汪氏,李尚书卫易此轩名曰:“铁舟”。

    ……园中为亭,为楼,为堂,为轩,为船房,曲折隐蔽,多引水以环之,或面或背,其船房则多在水中央也。

    履园丛话 南园

    园中有……“凉舫”“玉兰径”……“虚舟”“息机处”“镜香桥“”知乐亭”

    古朴园记

    水上架梁如舟,篷缆尽备。

     

    3:清代皇家园林舟船意象记录

    Table 3 Records of Boat Image in Imperial Gardens in Qing Dynasty

    种类

    园记名称

    记录

    清代皇家园林

    长春园载月舫

    《清高宗(乾隆)御制诗文全集·御制诗初集》卷五、《载月舫》:

    霞光抹天云漏月,载以扁舟任所之。

    《清高宗(御制诗三集》卷六十七、《坊月》:

    岂须绿鷁与葱鹙,一例沙棠载以浮。天水空澄光上下,如如认性且随流。

    静宜园绿云舫

    《清高宗御制诗初集》卷三十、《绿云舫》:周髀归妙契,天地一虚舟。

    《清高宗御制诗初集》卷九十七、《绿云舫》:

    入夏枝态密,过雨叶意润。以此貌绿云,宜哉哪待问。而舍构其间,拟舫真无吝。桨弗藉波荡,帆岂资风顺。如是泛虚舟,蓬瀛即可进。

    静宜园绿帷舫

    《清高宗御制诗三集》卷三十四、《绿帷舫》:不受波澜具舫意。

    避暑山庄云帆月舫

    《清高宗御制诗二集》卷三十六、《云帆月舫》:舟阁傍烟湖,浮居有若无。波流帆不动,涨落棹如孤。牖幔披云揭,楼栏共月扶。水原资地载,所见未云殊。

    西苑画舫斋

    《清高宗御制诗二集》卷八十四、《画舫斋》:凭窗成小憩,情寄米襄阳。

    《清高宗御制诗三集》卷三十五、《画舫斋口号》:

    画固镜花溪月,舫寓水流风行。合坐普门大士,静演不灭不生。

    西苑芥舟(亭)

    《清高宗御制诗三集》,卷56,《芥舟》:

    杯水无殊覆坳堂,堂如舟亦芥堪方。蒙庄原谓胶舟者,安识须弥个里藏。

    西苑写镜亭

    《清高宗御制诗四集》,卷38,《写镜亭》:

    一亭如虚舟,澄波映其下。写镜因得名,可凭不可把。

    清漪园石舫

    《清高宗御制诗三集》卷十二,《石舫》:烟舫欲登由石舫,若为止者若为行。金刚四句分明注,一切无非强与名。《清高宗御制诗三集》卷九十,《石舫》:水深亦不浮,水浅无妨泊。是谓大自在,亨屯视总漠。

    清漪园对鸥舫

    《清高宗御制诗三集》卷九十四、《对鸥舫》:

    雁尚待春来,鸥有经冬住。湖宽不冻处,托此弗能去。溪亭名曰舫,恒挹沧浪趣。野鸥四时对,适然任翔翥。无心与有心,那更介其虑。

    长春园狮子林画舫

    《清高宗御制诗四集》卷十、《画舫》   岸傍常待那须呼,欧米高情总不殊。何必风帆誇直捷,烟溪几曲耐萦迂。

    安澜园绿帷舫

    《日下旧闻考》第五部分、乾隆二十九年:曲廊宛转构水上,偶一凭栏槛,烟水在襟袖间,何必真舫。

    别有洞天活画舫

    《清高宗御制诗三集》卷八十三 《活画舫》舫或架以屋,屋或肖乎舫。

    长春园玉玲珑馆芥舟

    《清高宗御制诗三集》卷五十六、《芥舟》   杯水无殊覆坳堂,堂如舟亦芥堪方。蒙庄原谓胶舟者,安识须弥个里藏。

    (参考王戈《移植中的创造--清代皇家园林创作中的类型学与现象学》[13]

    作者整理摘录自《清高宗(乾隆)御制诗全集》[14]《日下旧闻考》[15]

     

    3 舟船意象与园林的结合

    文学艺术和哲学思想中的舟船意象与园林的结合,首推北宋欧阳修的《画舫斋记》。

    3.1 画舫斋的悖论

    欧阳修在《画舫斋记》(1042 年)开篇便介绍了画舫斋的空间结构特征:细长型空间内部,屋顶凿洞采光;两侧安置栏杆,供坐立依靠。位处山林之中,植被团簇,如若舟于水中前行(图 2~图 4)。而后借《周易》之象指出舟有“济难而非安居之用”的特点,回顾了自身获罪贬谪,行走江湖之时的坎坷路程。最后强调以“舟”命名并非是“忘其险阻,真乐于舟居”,而是向往“顺风恬波,一日千里”的舟行之乐。

    这里,欧阳修提出了一个悖论:既然作为闲居休憩的燕安之所,却以“济难而非安居之用”的舟舫来命名;既知有“舟楫之危”,却专取了“画舫”这样一个风雅之名,其中蕴含的深意非常值得探究。

    欧阳修诗文中多有表达舟中漂泊所诠释的悲愤与抗争的感情倾向,但他本人对于乘舟水上之乐的描述也不在少数,多有涉及“舟”“船”“舸”等关键词,所表达出的感情主要有孤苦伤怀之感、旅途漂泊之感、慷慨风流之感、闲适隐逸之感等(表 1)。

    同时代的苏舜钦正因也有类似的体验,而从刚离京时“难忘对酒歌”(《离京后作》)的不舍和无奈,逐渐转向“满川风雨看潮生”[9](《淮中晚泊犊头》)的悠闲从容和超然物外,对其营建沧浪亭起到了关键的作用。中国文人摹写大自然而营造园林,其中的标志就是设置画舫,寓意此船将开始流浪之旅,向未知的精神世界启航。“画舫斋”的悖论表达出的是宋代文人面对现实社会的无奈选择以及通过营造园林达到的自适与自乐。

    3.2 两宋园林中的舟船造景

    同样是欧阳修所作的《真州东园记》(1051 年),记录了在东园于水边造画舫,以供游憩,通篇表达园趣而无《画舫斋》中所涉及到的消极情绪。

    北宋李格非所著《洛阳名园记》中,没有记录舟船造景的现象,仅有“当国之人如操舟者”涉及到舟船的内容,以操舟喻对国家治理。南宋周密所作的《吴兴园林记》中,多有将舟船形象置于吴兴园林中的记载[10],比如牟端明园的“桴舫斋”,丁氏园中“郡守每岁劝农还,必于此舣舟宴焉”等。据《中国园林史年表》[11]记录,南宋乾道二年(1166 年)建盘洲别业,六年后作《盘洲记》,其中有对“艤斋”的详尽描述。前后对比可以看出两宋之际正是舟船作为主题元素被引入园林造景的重要转折期,而舟船成为造景元素的肇始正是欧阳修画舫斋的创造。

     

    4 明清园林中的舟船造景

    4.1 明清舟船实例

    明清时期,江南园林多运用舟船形象进行园林造景。以《园综》中园记为例,“舟”字在明代园记中出现 40 次,在清代园记中出现 81 次,舟船意象在明清园林活动中的地位得以显现。《园综》中所收录的园记对真实舟船园景的描述有 49 次:如明代勺园之中周遭皆白莲、形亦如舫的“太乙叶”;玉山佳处的“书画舫”;金陵诸园中东园的“画船载酒”;愚公谷乘中的“半舸”;集贤圃中半借竹坞,半跨水的“一叶居”等。

    相比之下,清代将舟船引入私园设计的案例更为丰富(表 2)。皇家园林中也同样注意吸纳舟船意象进行造景(表 3)。静宜园中有绿云舫、绿帷舫;长春园中有“载以扁舟任所之”的载月舫;避暑山庄中有“牖幔披云揭,楼栏共月扶”的云帆月舫;清漪园中有石舫、对鸥舫;西苑中则有“情寄米襄阳”的画舫斋等。以北海画舫斋为例,其取欧阳修画舫之意造园,未采用画舫的形式,建筑群南为北方皇家之中轴对称,北为南方文人园之自由活泼。前后院以土山形式展示自然氛围的林泉之乐,与中庭水院严整的氛围形成对比。结合乾隆三十二年的改建格局(图 5)可以看到,画舫斋东北部自由布局的奥旷室和古柯庭部分充分体现了文人园风格[1]

    4.2 明清舟船意象与内涵

    在舟船意象的文化嬗变过程中,明清广泛的造园活动将其发展推向了高潮,私家园林与皇家园林均延续舟船物质载体、精神载体两个方面的意向进行造景实践,“舟船”主题是明清时期诸景类型中极为典型的一例。整体来看,明清舟船景点与整园的造园思想背景相吻合,多以泛舟之乐抒发中隐思想以及“藏舟于壑”的变迁之感。清代皇家园林主要以“移天缩地在君怀”的造园技法,广泛吸收文人园林的精髓。除表达一般意义上的隐逸思想外,更是以舟船意象联系沧浪之趣的哲学思考、载舟覆舟的历史借鉴、虚舟应物的禅学奥义[16]等,通过对舟船的摹写来营造更为丰富的园林意象和文化内涵,以西苑画舫斋为典型案例进行了舟船作为政治载体的园中园造景实践。

    4.3 明清舟船意象的造景特征

    考察现存的古典园林,对于舟船原型的摹写主要集中在写实与写意两个部分。写实主要是以石材仿制舟船样式,造型具象,有逼真的头舱、中舱与尾舱结构。写意一类的摹写,造景的位置选取较为随意,可选择水边、陆地甚至山野之间。主要保留船身纵长的内部空间特征;或者截取片段进行联想,如窗外湖石或舷窗形态(表 4)。

     

    特征;或者截取片段进行联想,如窗外湖石或舷窗形态(表4)。

     

     

     

    4:现存园林中对舟船意象摹写的特征

    Table 4 Characteristic of Boat Images in Existing Gardens

    摹写种类

    园景

    样式

    特征

    写实

    颐和园清晏舫

    西洋风貌

    装饰精美,毫无风波之险;此类景观元素主要涉及水景,整体置于水面之上或侧面临水。

    苏州狮子林石舫

    江南画舫

    写实再创造

    拙政园的香洲

    虽为建筑,但内部空间与船体结构相似,具象与抽象相结合。

    煦园不系舟

    避暑山庄云帆月舫

    怡园画舫斋

    写意

    怡园石舫

    船游的意境,全靠游者自身想象

    造景的位置选取较为随意,可选择水边、陆地甚至山野之间。主要保留船身纵长的内部空间特征;或者截取片段进行联想,如窗外湖石或舷窗形态。

     

    豫园亦舫

    拥翠山庄月驾轩

    与两侧小轩结合,形成舟船样式,强调了陆舟特点

    扬州何园东园船厅

    以波纹铺地象征水面,采用旱园水做

    秋霞圃舟而不游轩

    圆明园若帆之阁

    将层层麦浪的意象进行整合,以替代水波这一造园要素

    留园涵碧山房

    水景元素对主题起到了一定的提示作用,更倾向于以常见建筑元素替代舟船造型,以更加隐晦的方式对舟船主题进行再现。

    拙政园留听阁

    古猗园书画舫


    5 总结

    舟船意象,主要体现在中隐思想。魏晋南北朝时期士人主体意识的觉醒和山水美学的完善,促进了文人园的发展;其风流放达的生活方式和人生追求,直接影响了隐逸态度的变化。朝隐、大隐与小隐、中隐等观念的出现与践行,不仅造成了隐逸文化的分野,而且促使隐逸文化与山林泉石、园林景观相结合。两宋以后,园林营造技术的逐渐成熟,宋明理学对于传统文化的再梳理,以及禅学的兴起等,都促成园林发展到一个高峰,出现壶中天地的造景方式,进一步强化了中隐理论。舟船的空间性和容纳功能,恰与壶中天地类似。此时,欧阳修将画舫引入园林就顺理成章了。

    作为诸多园林景观中的特殊主题,舟船折射出园林的本质特征,承载着身体的安顿与精神的栖居。中国古代士人在出处仕隐间一直做着选择。经由中隐思想的发展与实践,自然山川与园林环境成为士人宦场失意的庇护所与寄情寓意的对象,成为君子的“游息之物”。中唐之后园居生活日益受到重视,至两宋时发展到高潮,文人画风流布于士林,借山川风物以为自我之襟抱。诗歌中对舟船意象的丰富表现,正与这种对园林的认识转变互为表里;舟船意象的本质与园林一样,既是身体的安顿,又是精神的栖居。

    在舟船意象的发展过程中,以欧阳修的画舫斋为重要转折点,舟船意象在两宋逐渐成为重要造园元素,作为中隐思想的寄托与身体安顿、精神栖居之所被广泛应用。舟船意象的演变过程,以及后世中写实与写意的创作手法的创新,具有强烈的中国园林造景特征,这一文化原型的再创作应当在现代建筑设计及景观设计中得到重视。

     

    注释:

    ① 如《周南·汉广》:“南有乔木,不可休思;汉有游女,不可求思。汉之广矣, 不可泳思;江之永矣,不可方思。”其中“方”为“舫”之意,而“舫”即“舟”也。以此表达以舟渡水而不得,相见无望的相思之苦。而《邶风·谷风》中,更有“就其深矣,方之舟之。就其浅矣,泳之游之”,借用以舟渡深水而以游渡浅滩的比喻,表示弃妇对家庭的尽心尽力却被抛弃的悲惨命运。

    ② 《邶风·二子乘舟》中“二子乘舟,泛泛其景。愿言思子,中心养养”,表达出了临行之前依依不舍的情绪。《卫风·竹竿》中“淇水滺滺,桧楫松舟”则表达出渴望归乡之情。从这里发散出去,生命中无法把控的旅居愁绪便通过舟船的意象进行了传递。

    ③ 《庄子·山木》:“方舟而济于河,有虚船来触舟,虽有惼心之人不怒;有一人在其上,则呼张歙之;一呼而不闻,再呼而不闻,于是三呼邪,则必以恶声随之。向也不怒而今也怒,向也虚而今也实。人能虚己以游世,其孰能害之!”

    []弘历.《清高宗御制诗文全集》,诗三集,卷五《画舫斋》诗文:譬如水载舟,前贤揭其旨。

    ⑤ 成文出版社印行民国二十一年铅印本《重修滑县志》中《书院图说》记载:书院在城内东南隅即宋欧阳文忠公画舫斋之遗址,明知县项城王公廷谏于万历间建秋声书院,因画舫斋后有秋声楼相传为文忠公秋夜读书处。清顺治间历城王公鼐知滑事重修易名画舫书院。康熙间又易名欧阳书院。

    ⑥ 陈从周,蒋启霆等:《园综》[M],上海:同济大学出版社,2004,第71页。《盘洲记》中对“艤斋”描述详尽:“波间一壑,于藏舟为宜,作‘艤斋’于檐后,四滨怪石,前后特起,曰:‘云轩’、曰:‘啸风岩’。”“藏舟”典出《庄子集释》卷三上《内篇·大宗师》:“夫藏舟於壑,藏山於泽”。

    ⑦ 岵园中有台两偏一高榭处的“定舫”;依水园中亦有水中“画舫”;《扬州画舫录》中记录南园中有画舫名为“移园”;蜀冈朝旭中水中筑“双流舫”,万松叠翠中“半含树际,半出溪漘,开靠山门”处设置的仿航屋式“春流画舫”;近园中也有设置“虚舟”;梅皋别墅中有“春水船”;凤池园中“石桥宛转,陆居似舟”的“爱莲舟”;临顿新居之中枕水作屋,中贮法书名画的“烟波画船”;依绿园中有有若方舟之浮于波面上的“水香簃”;遂初园中跨水如舟的“浮槎”;《郭嵩焘日记》中嘉兴陈园的“溪山真意轩”;《履园丛话》中南园“虚舟”;复园中有室如船的“壑舟”;可园之中右亭作舟形的“坐春舻”;邓尉山庄之中的“银藤舫”;渔隐小圃之中水木清华榭对面的系舟;半园之中“不系舟”等。

    ⑧ 朝隐思想萌芽于西汉时期的东方朔,《史记》卷一百二十六,《滑稽列传》第六十六,曾记载其“避世金马门”的典故,东方朔《戒子诗》又云:“首阳为拙,柳惠为工。饱食安步,以仕代农。”反映了他避世于朝廷而不愿避世于深山的思想。

    []王康琚:《反招隐诗》,《文选》卷二十二招隐,有“小隐隐陵薮,大隐隐朝市”之句,最早标明了小隐、大隐的定义,并以大隐为高。

     

    There are kinds of garden buildings themed by boat in Chinese classical gardens, such as the Marble Boat, the Boat-like Structure, etc., which have become unique garden landscapes. Under the poetic thinking of the pre-Qin period, the original practical function of boat gradually turned to aesthetics, then expanded the connotation of reclusive culture with the deep influence of Confucianism and became a special symbol in later literature and art. The increasing maturity of the “moderate seclusion” thinking in the Tang Dynasty made it possible for gardens to be a secluded environment in reality. Ouyang Xiu of the Northern Song Dynasty introduced boat as a special theme into garden building, implying the combined purposes of "distress relief" and "boating pleasure". During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the boat image became the prototype commonly imitated in private gardens in the south of the Yangtze River and royal gardens in the Qing Dynasty.

    Boat is not only the carrier of seclusion culture in gardens, but also part of the joy of mountains and waters. By combing the creation of boats in literary works and the theme scenic spots in classical gardens, this paper tries to discuss the profound influence of boat image on the development of gardens.

    1 Interpretation of Boats and Related Research

    There are three definitions of “boat” in Cihai: a family name, the reference to boat as a noun, and "boating" as a verb. The similar words mainly include “Chuan” (vehicle sailing on water and the similarities), “Fang” (two boats joined together and the collective name of boat), “Ge” (large boat), “Hang” (boat and its floating), “Ze Meng” (small boat), “Yu Huang” (gorgeous boat), “Cha” (raft), “Yi” (bringing boat ashore), “Dao” (knife-shaped boat) and many other ships in different forms and their floating conditions. Some parts of boat components are also used to refer to the boat, such as “Zhu Lu”, “Rao”, “Zhao”, “Jiang”, “Lu”, “Peng”, “Duo”, “Xian” and “Fan”.

    There are rich study achievements on the cultural images of boats in literary works, focusing on wandering homelessly and miserably, sadness of parting, seclusion and freedom of mind. Most records about the elements of boats in gardens are the collected graphic data in selected works. The monographs on architectural history and garden history have collected and discussed extensive cases of boat landscaping in gardens, and generally mentioned the creation of boat theme. There are many references to the role of boat elements in landscaping and landscape appreciation in regional landscape research works. The thematic study of boat landscaping in gardens mainly focuses on the characteristics of spatial form, the summary of connotation and the discussion of typical thematic cases. On this basis, this paper tries to discuss the evolution of boat image from literary expression to gardening practice from the root.

    2 Cultural Connotation Evolution of Boat Image and its Origin

    In the pre-Qin period, boat was used as a tool during conquest of nature by human beings. Its early images were raft and canoe, represented by paddles and clay models of wooden boats excavated in Hemudu Culture Site. The function of boat was daily travelling and transportation. The Preface to Zhou Li•Book of Diverse Crafts recorded that "boats are made to travel on water". In Zuo’s Commentary•The 13th Year of Xi Gong, there was a battle in boats. Boats were also used in the war as recorded in the Bamboo Annals: "Cover their boats and destroy them." In addition, boats were used for entertainment. Biography of Emperor Mu recorded activities of "the emperor taking bird boats and dragon boats". Dragon boats and dragon stripes represented guarding and defending, which conformed to the psychology of seeking benefits and avoiding harms. In the Ode to the Goddess of the Luo River in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Goddess Luo River took the vessel of dragons and phoenixes. Boats were gradually regarded as independent aesthetic objects in the development of later generations. Since the pre-Qin period, boats have gradually exceeded their practical functions and been widely used in the creation of poems, paintings and garden arts. Next, we will sort out the evolution of the cultural connotation of boat image and its internal roots from three aspects: the material carrier and the spiritual carrier (figure 1).

    2.1 Material Carrier: Sorrow of Parting and Joy of Nature

    As a material carrier, boat has turned from a medium reposing sorrow of wandering to a load of open-minded life on water, and then a carrier of sightseeing on boat. With the development of poetic thinking, analogy enables people to project their own life experience on everything around, so that the objective things have become the carrier of "comparison and analogy", and further become the elements of "poem expressing ideal" and "words expressing feelings", which exist widely in poetry with the principle of comparison and analogy. In the Book of Songs, there are a lot of expressions of "taking boat with sorrow". Some express the emotion of lovers , and some express the wandering sadness and helpless dreariness .

    Tang poetry extended the image of wandering life and residence of boat. In poems of Du Fu, boat was the place of resting during wandering, just as Fan Chengda said in the Southern Song: "Du’s boat lingering at the sand island"[3]. While in contrast to Du's obscureness and wandering, Bai Juyi focused on the broad and comfort life on water travelling by "I dance after well fed, I wash with autumn water"[4]. In his poem Pipa Player, the word "boat" was also frequently used, which laid the foundation for boat to serve as a material carrier for recreational activities to a certain extent, and enabled its appreciation subject to extend from aristocrats to literati, endowing less magnificence and more popularity and meticulousness. Meng Haoran expressed the aesthetic taste of mountains and rivers with "Singing in the boat"[5] and "Boating across the lake"[6] to express parting with more broad-mindedness and less pessimism. Zhang Bao in the Qing Dynasty traveled through several provinces and made artistic creations with the scenery he saw while boating, and completed 103 paintings of Boating on Water, when sailing had become an important carrier for sightseeing, and boat had transcended the materiality props to become part of the joy of nature.

    2.2 Spiritual Carrier

    2.2.1 Freedom of Mind: A Boat Crossing River and an Empty Boat Refusing Nothing

    As a spiritual carrier of free mind, boat has evolved from the combination of object and heart in Zhuangzi's philosophy to the later concept of empty boat. The allusions in Zhuangzi, namely, "A boat was to be crashed by an empty boat when crossing the river ", emphasized the attitude and thought of being quiet, inactive, self-denial and passionless. Yu Yun, Tao Yuanming and Xie Lingyun of the Eastern Jin Dynasty and Meng Haoran, Du Fu and Bai Juyi of the Tang Dynasty mentioned this image several times in their poems, taking the empty boat as a benchmark to raise their self-cultivation. For example, “Fire will burn luxury house, but wave seldom overturns boat." (One of the Two Impromptus by Bai Juyi) expressed a detached attitude towards the struggle. "Staying in the quiet room, I just want to learn from the empty boat" (Autumn Chill by Bai Juyi) took the empty boat as the learning object and sublimated the spiritual realm.

    2.2.2 Seclusion Thought: Seeking Aspiration by Seclusion and Seclusion in the Garden

    With the development of Confucianism, the image of boat integrated into retirement and seclusion, and generated the change from seeking for opportunity in seclusion to garden living of moderate seclusion in the garden. The Analects of Confucius•Gongye Chang said: "My statecraft is not accepted, so I’d rather float on the sea." expressing the reclusive thoughts of Confucianism aimed at implementing claims and waiting for opportunity based on morality. Fan Li of the Spring and Autumn Period lived in seclusion and indulged himself in a boat on Wuhu Lake. Following Xie Tiao, a famous landscape poet in the Southern Dynasty who expressed the delight of seclusion with "I’m delightful to take post in small town as in the court", Bai Juyi expounded his idea of seclusion in the garden.

    The inheritance of this idea influenced the Painted Boat Studio of Ouyang Xiu in the Northern Song Dynasty, who introduced two tends from boat image in The Notes of Painted Boat Studio, namely, "Relieving distress rather than comfortable settlement” and “Following the wind and wave to sleep proudly”, and finally chose the latter as the implication of boat in the garden. Since then, the image of boats had gradually increased in the gardens of the Southern Song Dynasty, and even widely existed in private gardens of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Most of them followed the meaning of the painting boat studio integrating the functions of sightseeing, entertainment and basically the idea of seclusion. All extended meanings were still confined to the interpretation scope of garden boats already mature in the Song Dynasty.

    2.2.3 Relief for the People and World: Taking Official Post, Helping People and Crossing Confusion River in Boats

    In this category, the image of boat, combining with the thoughts of taking official post to help people and the Buddhism idea of relieving people, gradually formed a mature aesthetic image of benevolence. In Yi · Copulative I, there was a saying of "Boat helps to crosses water." In The Post-Han Dynasty Book · The Biography of Lang Yi , there was a metaphor of "Boat and oar help to cross river and sea" to "Recruit talent to assist governance of the state", which took boat as a medium to convey the Confucianism thought of taking official post to serve people and lasted to the later generations. Meng Haoran in the "Want to cross the river but no boat, it's ashamed to stay at home in peacetime" poem with boat image and help the world; Li Bai expressed his longing for becoming an official by saying that "sometimes the wind breaks the waves, and sometimes the wind sails straight to the sea." In Buddhist doctrine, boat was a tool for life liberation. For example, LI Bai had a poem of "Crossing confusion river in boats "[7], expressing the religious significance of compassion and relieving all living beings with boat in Buddhism.

    2.3 Self-encouragement and Self-reflection: Carrying and Overturning of Boat and the Spirit of Literati

    The image of the metaphor of boat and water was deeply influenced by the spirit of literati, and gradually transferred from the discussion of literary works to the practice of landscape architecture, to emphasize the self-encouragement and self-reflection of literati. It is recorded in the records of The Three Kingdoms that "Deep observation the problem of the east field, pay attention to the metaphor of the boat and water"."Xun Zi" also had the compliment and insult words of "The monarch is a boat, and the common is water. Water can both carry a boat and overturn a boat".This moral was not widely used in private gardens due to the restriction of the garden owner's status as a scholar. The image was applied to landscape practice in the royal garden of the Qing Dynasty, Painting Boat Studio of West Garden. The meaning of the Painting Boat Studio was beyond the restriction of landscaping, but to a certain extent, Painting Boat Studio was deeply influenced by the Confucian doctrine of "virtue of sage inside and majesty of monarch outside". Relying on "Such as water carrying a boat, the former virtuous uncover its intention" to encourage themselves. It was an advocation of the literati spirit of "I'm happy either poor or smooth" represented by Ouyang Xiu, as well as an expression of imperial literati and a sustenance of reclusive sentiment.

    3 Combination of Boat Image and Garden

    For the combination of the image of boat and garden in literary, artistic and philosophical thoughts, the Painting Boat Studio by Ouyang Xiu in the Northern Song Dynasty was regarded as the foremost.

    3.1 Paradox of Painting Boat Studio

    Ouyang Xiu introduced the spatial structure characteristics of painting boat studio at the very beginning of Painting Boat Studio (1042): There are holes in the roof for daylight inside the slender space, and railings on both sides for sitting and leaning. The studio is located in a mountain forest clustered by vegetation, just like a boat moving forward in the water (figure 2- figure 4). Further, the author pointed out that the boat had the characteristic of "Relieving distress rather than comfortable settlement" by using the image of The Book of Changes, and reviewed his bumpy experience when condemned and exiled to take a journey over hills and waters. At last, he emphasized that the naming of "boat" was not "forgetting the dangers and enjoying living in the boat", but longing for the joy of boating "following wind to travel one thousand miles a day".

    Ouyang Xiu put forward a paradox here: the peaceful dwelling is named after the boat "relieving distress rather than comfortable settlement". He knew the danger of boat, but chose the elegant name of "Painting Boat". So the profound meaning is worth exploring.

    Most poems of Ouyang Xiu expressed the emotional tendency of grief, indignation and resistance expressed by wandering in boat, but there were also a number of descriptions about the joy of taking a boat. There were such keywords as "boat", "ship" and "barge", which mainly expressed the feeling of loneliness and sorrow, the feeling of wandering journey, the feeling of generosity and love, the feeling of leisure and seclusion, etc. (table 1).

    The contemporary poet SU Shunqin had the similar experience: From just left the capital "Unforgettable drinking while singing" reluctant and helpless, to "Watching the tide on the stormy river"[9], illustrating ease and detachment, which played a key role in the construction of Pavilion of Surging Waves. The Chinese literati imitated the nature to build gardens, the symbol of which was the setting of painting boat implying the start of wandering sail of the boat to the unknown spiritual world. The paradox of "Painting Boat Studio" expressed the helpless choice against the real society the self-satisfaction and self-happiness achieved by building gardens of the literati in the Song Dynasty.

    3.2 Boat Landscaping in Gardens of Two Song Dynasties

    A Note of Dongyuan Garden in Zhenzhou (1051) also by Ouyang Xiu recorded the building of painting boat at the water's edge in the Dongyuan Garden for recreation, expressing the pleasure of the garden without any negative emotions in Painting Boat Studio.

    In Famous Gardens in Luoyang written by Li Gefei in the Northern Song Dynasty, there were no records of boat landscaping, but only "A state governor is like a boat operator" involved the content of boat, which used the analogy of boat operation to state governance. In “Gardens in Wuxing” by Zhou Mi of the Southern Song Dynasty, there were several records that put the image of boats in the Wuxing gardens [10], such as "Raft Studio" in Mu Duanming Garden and "The chief magistrate exhorts farmers to return every year, and he must banquet here" in Ding’s Garden. According to the records in Chronology of Chinese Garden History[11], Panzhou Villa was built in Qiandao Second Year (1166 AD) in the Southern Song Dynasty, and A Note of Panzhou was written six years later, which covered a detailed description of "Anchor Boat" . The comparison indicated that the time of the two Song Dynasties was an important turning point when boat was introduced as a theme element into the garden landscaping, and the beginning of boat landscaping element was the creation of Painting Boat Studio by Ouyang Xiu.

    4. Boat Landscaping in Ming and Qing Gardens

    4.1 Instances of Boats in Ming and Qing Dynasties

    In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the image of boats was widely applied to the garden landscaping in the south of Yangtze River. Taking the garden notes in the Garden Collections as an example, the word "boat" appeared 40 times in the garden notes of the Ming dynasty and 81 times in the Qing dynasty. The image of boat began to show up in the garden landscaping activities of the Ming and Qing dynasties. There were 49 descriptions of the real boat scenery in the garden notes included in the Garden Collections, such as “Taiyi Leaf” in Shao Garden of the Ming Dynasty surrounded by white lotus in the ship of boat, the "Painting and Calligraphy Boat" in Yushan Sceneries; "Painting Boad Carrying Wine" in the Dongyuan Garden of Jinling Gardens, the "Half Boat" in Yugong Valley, and the One-leaf Habitat” in Jixian Nursery crossing bamboo dock and water.

    In contrast, there are more cases introducing boats into private gardens in the Qing Dynasty (table 2). The royal gardens also highlighted to absorb the image of boats for landscaping (table 3). In Jingyi Garden, there were Green Cloud Boat and Green Curtain Boat. In Changchun Garden, there was Moon Boat "Travelling to anywhere I want". In the Summer Resort, there was Cloud Sail Moon Boat"covered with clouds and supported by the moon". In Qingyi Garden, there were Marble Boat and Double Gull Boat. In Xiyuan Garden, there was Painting Boat Studio "In Memory of MI Xiangyang". Taking Beihai Painting Boat Studio as an example, it followed the design of Ouyang Xiu instead of the form of painting boat. The south of the building cluster was the axisymmetry of the royal palace in North China, and the north was the freedom and liveliness of the literati in South China. The front and back courtyards demonstrated the pleasure of nature in the form of mountain, which was in contrast to the neat atmosphere in the atrium water courtyard. In combination with the reconstruction pattern in the Qianlong 32nd Year (figure 5), the free layout of Aokuang Room and Guke Court in the northeast of Painting Boat Studio fully reflected the style of literati garden [1].

    4.2 Image and Connotation of Boat in Ming and Qing Dynasties

    During the cultural evolution of boat image, the extensive gardening activities in the Ming and Qing dynasties pushed its development to a climax. Both private gardens and royal gardens carried out landscaping practice with the intention of material carrier and spiritual carrier of boat. The theme of boat was a typical example of various landscape types in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Generally, the boat attractions in Ming and Qing dynasties were consistent with the gardenbuilding background of the whole garden, mostly expressing the hidden thoughts and the sense of change of "hiding boats in pools" with the pleasant of boating.

    The royal gardens in Qing Dynasty mainly adopted the gardening technique of "moving heaven and shrinking earth in the bosom of monarch" and widely absorbed the essence of literati gardens. In addition to expressing the reclusive thoughts in the general sense, it was also a philosophical thinking linking the image of boat with the joy of surging waves, a historical reference for carrying and overturning boat, and a Buddhist meaning that empty boats should be used for things [16], etc. Through the imitation of boat, a richer garden image and cultural connotation are created. Painting Boat Studio of Xiyuan Garden is taken as a typical case for the garden landscaping practice as a political carrier.

    4.3 Landscaping Characteristic of Boat Image in Ming and Qing Dynasties

    Reviewing the existing classical gardens, the imitation of the prototype of the boat mainly focuses on two parts: realism and freehand brushwork. Realism mainly imitates the boat style with stone, with concrete shape and lifelike structure of head cabin, middle cabin and tail cabin. Freehand brushwork is a kind of imitation.

    The location of landscaping is chosen randomly, either water, land and even between the wild mountains. It mainly retains the longitudinal internal space features of the hull, or cut out fragments for association, such as the shape of lake stone or porthole outside the window (table 4).

    5 Summary

    The image of a boat is mainly embodied in the thought of moderate seclusion. The awakening of scholars' subjective consciousness and the perfection of landscape aesthetics in the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties promoted the development of literati garden. The romantic lifestyle and pursuit of life directly affected the change of seclusion attitude. The emergence and practice of the concepts of seclusion in court , great seclusion and small seclusion , and moderate seclusion, which not only caused the division of seclusion culture, but also promoted the combination of seclusion culture with mountain, forest, spring, stone and garden landscape. Since the Song Dynasty, the gradual maturity of garden construction technology, the re-arrangement of traditional culture by Neo-Confucianism in the Song and Ming Dynasties, and the rise of Zen idea, all contributed to the development of gardens to a peak, with the emergence of a landscape design method in the pot of heaven and earth, further strengthening the theory of seclusion. The spatiality and accommodation function of the boat are just similar to the world in the pot. At this time, it was logical for Ouyang Xiu to introduce the painting boat.

    As a special theme in a number of garden landscapes, boat reflects the essential characteristics of gardens and bears the burden of physical and spiritual settlement. The ancient Chinese scholars have been making choices between the taking official post and seclusion. Through the development and practice of the thought of moderate seclusion, the natural mountains and rivers and the garden environment have become the shelter for scholars and officials to be frustrated and the object of expressing their feelings, and have become the "objects of pleasant" for officials. After the mid-Tang Dynasty, the life in the garden was more attractive, and reached its climax in the Song Dynasty. Literati paintings spread in the forests and took advantage of mountains, rivers and scenery to hold themselves. The rich expression of the image of boat in poems is in harmony with this change of understanding of gardens. The essence of the boat image is the same as that of the garden, which is both the settlement for the body and the spirit.

    During the development of boat image, the Painting Boat Studio of Ouyang Xiu was as an important turning point. The boat image gradually became an important gardening element in the Song Dynasty and was widely used as the sustenance of the thoughts of seclusion, as well as the place of physical settlement and spiritual residence. The evolution of the boat image as well as the creation of realistic and freehand brushwork in later generations has strong characteristics of Chinese garden landscaping. The recreation of this cultural prototype deserves highlight in modern architectural design and landscape design.

    Notes:

    Such as Southern Zhou Hanguang: "There are trees in the south, but I cannot rest; There are frisky girls in the Han River, but I cannot pursue. The Han River is broad , but I cannot swim. The Han River flows far, but I cannot boat, where referred “boat” to express the impossibility to cross the water and the lovesickness that cannot meet the lover. In Beifeng• Gu Feng, there was even "In deep water, I will boat. In shallow water, I will swim", which was used to compare to the tragic fate of abandoned women who had made all efforts to their families.

    In Beifeng Two Sons in Boat, there was My two sons took a boat and left far away. How much I miss them”, expressing the unwillingness to depart. In Weifeng Bamboo Pole, there was “Qi River runs without return. The cypress oar loosens the boat”, expressing the longing to return to hometown. From here, the anxiety of living beyond control is transmitted through the image of boat.

    Zhuangzi Mountain Wood: "A boat was to be crashed by an empty boat when crossing the river, but a narrow-minded man in boat would not be angry. A man on the boat shouted hurriedly, but was not heard for three times. So the man must abuse ruthlessly. The one who did not get angry was angry now, and the one who was modest also got angry. If one can keep modest, how can he be hurt? "

    [Qing Dynasty] HONG Li. The Collection of Gao Zong's Imperial Poems, vol.3, No.5. "Painting Boat Studio" recorded "Such as water carrying a boat, the former virtuous uncover its intention"

    The stereotype edition of the 21 years of the republic of China printed by Chengwen Press The An Illustration of Academy of Recompilation of Huaxian County Record recorded that the academy was located in the southeast corner of the city, the site of Painting Boat Studio of Ouyang Xiu in the South Song Dynasty. Wang Tingjian in Xiangcheng of Mingzhi County built Qiusheng Academy during Wanli years, and was said to be the reading room of Ouyang Xiu as it was in front of the Painting Boat Studio. During the reign of Emperor Shunzhi of Qing Dynasty,the duke of Licheng Gong Nai rebuilt the Academy and rename it as Painting Boat Academy. During the reign of Emperor Kangxi, it was renamed as Ouyang Academy.

    Chen Congzhou, Jiang Qiting, et al., Garden Collection [M], Shanghai: Tongji University Press, 2004, P. 71. A Note of Panzhou described the "Anchor Studio" in detail: " There is a pool suitable for hiding boats. An "Anchor Studio" was built behind the eaves surrounded by rare stones, namely, “‘Cloud Corridor' and 'Whistling Wind Rock'." The "hiding boat" is quoted from "Hiding a boat in the pool, and hiding a mountain in the river" , Inner Chapter •Master, Collective Interpretation of Zhuangzi, Volume 3-1.

    There is "Ding Boat" at the high pavilion of Hu Garden, "Painting Boat" in the water in Yishui Garden, “Yi Garden” in South Garden recorded in Yangzhou Records of Painting Boat, "Shuangliu Boat" in the water of Shugang Morning Sun, "Spring Flowing Boat" at the place of "half forest and half stream, a gate under the mountain" in Wansongdiecui Villa, "Empty Boat" in Jin Garden, "Spring Water Boat" in Meigao villa, "Lotus Boat" in Fengchi Garden with "wandering stone bridge, land dwelling like boat"; "Foggy Wave Painting Boat" on water of Lindun Mansion, "Fresh Water Cottage" floating on the wave of Yilv Garden like a boat, "Floating Raft" across Suichu Garden, “Truth Corridor of Xishan” in Jiaxing Chen Garden in A Dairy of Guo Songtao, "Empty Boat" in Soth Garden in An Essay of Lv Garden, “Gully Boat” with boat-shaped room in Fu Garden, “Zuochun Boat” in the shape of boat in Ke Garden, “Yinteng Boat” in Dengwei Villa, “Xi Boat” opposite to Waterwood Pavilion of Hiding Fisher Nursery and “Buxi Boat” in Half Garden.

    The thought of secluding in the court was originated from Dongfang Shuo in the Western Han Dynasty. In Biography of Huaji, Article 66, Historical Records, Volume 126, there was the allusion of "Avoiding political affairs at Copper Horse Gate." In Alert Poem Against Sons by Dongfang Shuo, he also said " Although the gentleman is lofty, they are stubborn in relationship; Liu Xiahui was integral clever and tactful in social. Be satisfied with the life to substitute farming with official business.” Reflecting his thought of avoiding the world from the imperial court rather than the nature.

    Wang Kangju of Jin Dynasty: A Poem Against Seclusion, Selected Works, Volume 22 said "small seclusion is hiding in the nature, big seclusion is hiding in the court.” which was the first definition of small seclusion and big seclusion, and praised big seclusion.


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