“High Line Effect” and “Bilbao Effect”: Comparative Interpretation of Renovation Effect by Signature Projects
LEI Wei HE Jie*
雷巍 / 1995年生 / 男 / 天津大学建筑学院风景园林学硕士研究生
LEI Wei, born in 1995, male. He is a master’s student of Landscape Architecture in School of Architecture, Tianjin University.
何捷 / 1970年生 / 男 / 天津大学建筑学院副教授 / 研究方向：空间人文学、游憩行为与绿色基础设施、地理设计
通讯作者邮箱(Corresponding author E-mail)：email@example.com
HE Jie, born in 1970, male. He is an associate professor in School of Architecture, Tianjin University.
Research directions: spatial humanities, recreation behaviour and green infrastructure, geo-design
注：图2~4 底图来自谷歌地图；图5 改绘自chelseagallerymap.com ；图6 底图来自中
Note: The base images of Figure 2-4 are from Google Earth; Figure 5 is from chelseagallerymap.com;
Figure 6 is from standard map service of the Ministry of Natural Resources of the People's
Republic of China; Figure 7 is from Baidu Map.
Abstract：In the global trend of industrial transformation, some decaying post-industrial cities and urban districts have achieved their industrial transformation and infrastructure renewal of the surrounding areas through intervention of expensive signature projects which brought extremely considerable economic returns. It has become a prototype for many cities to follow. However, as more and more copycat projects failed to meet their return expectation, and at the same time, as star projects and their embedded regions continue to transform, there is a growing awareness that special sustainable support systems are behind these successful projects. The paper investigates the "Highline Effect" and "Bilbao Effect" and their associated cases. These two signature projects’ similarities and differences are discussed from the perspectives of transformation and intervention, regional and urban relations, expansion patterns and models, and the critiques on success and failure. The research finding is expected to provide a diversified and differentiated interpretation for the signature projects and the hidden complicated urban relations.
Key words: urban renovation; landscape intervention; High Line Effect; Bilbao Effect
衰落后工业城区的文化复兴从何而来又走向何方？在创意型城市兴起各种明星项目的初期，答案并不明确。昂贵的明星项目不能通过“加入一点点文化和艺术”实现城市更新和产业转型，已然成为热潮后众多失败项目的共同批判。准确来说，高线公园和毕尔巴鄂古根海姆博物馆并不是阶段性复兴的起点，两个城市区域向文化艺术产业的转型也非凭空而来。早在1970年《生活》杂志的封面标题中，纽约苏豪区的“Living big in a loft”，已经预示纽约内城以艺术家为先锋的泛文化转型成为了一种主流区域复兴方式[1, 7]。随着苏豪区的士绅化，于19世纪80年代艺术家们逐步搬入附近的西村，于19世纪90年代再转移到了高线公园所在的西切尔西区[8,9]，像高古轩等知名画廊在高线公园的想法提出之前就已选址于西切尔西区。被部分文章称为衰落的工业小城市的毕尔巴鄂，文化艺术产业渊源则更胜于纽约，从19世纪起，著名的“朝圣之路”至少有两条经过了毕尔巴鄂市，带来了大量的人流和商业机遇，形成了重要的文化连结。至今，巴斯克郡政府仍然重视文化之旅带来的旅游经济，非常积极地支持着“法国之路”，以提升自己的国际知名度。
明星项目的背后是庞大的基础设施建设、优惠政策和产业的支持系统，换言之，昂贵的明星项目作为城市和区域复兴的名片需要众星拱月式地扶持，而在一二十年后的现今看来，所谓的明星项目其实只是一个开始（图1）。高线公园项目咨询公司HR&A董事长约翰·阿尔舒勒认为，高线项目在西切尔西区的成功转型中最重要的作用并不是设计本身带来了产业的转型，而是西切尔西区的特殊区划中，政府首次在法律上允许将纯工业用地转变为充满生气的住宅和商业用地。如今的高线公园除自身即为名片外，周边又新建起了大批新的明星项目（图2），毕尔巴鄂古根海姆博物馆建筑师弗兰克·盖里设计的IAC大楼也在其中。与高线公园20年间一系列紧锣密鼓的建设项目类似，毕尔巴鄂从1979年就展开了综合清理计划，如对重度污染的内维翁河道的清理等工作。1991年毕尔巴鄂向古根海姆基金会提出合作之前，已在1989年通过土地规划确定了“机会区”，并于1992年通过了战略规划方案。在1997年古根海姆博物馆开放之前，毕尔巴鄂已在1995年完成了如由诺曼·福斯特设计的新地铁等大型基础设施工程。除了西萨·佩里、阿尔瓦罗·西扎、拉斐尔·莫内欧等明星建筑师设计的建筑项目环绕在古根海姆博物馆周围，也有如扎哈·哈迪德事务所完成总体规划设计的 Zorrozaurre 岛、圣地亚哥·卡拉特拉瓦设计的沃兰汀步行桥等与之隔水相望（图3）。毕尔巴鄂的规划愿景从1991-2010年的“基础设施建设与价值实现”转向2011～2035年间“专业化的时代”，明确了艺术产业和旅游服务业向专业化、高端化的转型。从时间的持续性上看，古根海姆博物馆项目作为全球首屈一指的当代艺术博物馆在开放的20年后依然发挥着显著的作用。类似地，高线公园三期直接相连的是哈德逊广场巨型项目，作为美国历史上最大的、私人投资的地产项目，即将在高线公园开放十周年之际的2019年第一期落成。2019年也恰是当年反对拆除高线公园的民间组织——“高线之友”成立20周年之际，“后高线”时代辉煌依旧。不论是高线公园还是古根海姆博物馆，所谓的激活效应显然是从一个明星项目到一系列明星项目集合的过程。
Figure 1 Timeline of the High Line and Guggenheim Museum
Figure 2 Signature Projects around the High Line Park
Figure 3 Signature Projects around the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao
不论是从建筑、景观还是城市规划理论的视角下去看待高线公园和古根海姆博物馆，这类项目介入建成区域的更新发展有着异曲同工之妙。美国建筑师 Wayne Attoe 和 Donn Logan 在1992年出版的《美国都市建筑：城市设计中的触媒》一书中提出了“城市触媒”的概念。这与同时期以查尔斯·瓦尔德海姆为首、在1997年首次举办的景观都市主义主题会议中提出的景观都市理论的批判不谋而合。这样的概念理论以及作为典型理论实践案例的 “毕尔巴鄂效应”和“高线”效应，批判了以柯布西耶和赖特主导的现代城市规划和摩天大楼在解决当代城市建成区种种问题的局限性，提出城市景观（包括景观建筑）类似“触媒”，可以更好地介入和组织都市化过程[16, 17]。尽管从表面上看“高线”效应和“毕尔巴鄂效应”最终的成果都是明星项目引领下的复兴共荣，但不同尺度的城市以及不同的城市定位，明星项目介入的方式与程度确不尽相同，文创产业与城市发展的相互影响关系也是不同的。
从项目自身的产业导向上看，高线公园作为公园类的景观项目，虽然本身并不具备“古根海姆模式”下商业博物馆显著的功能和产业导向性，但这并不妨碍二者的比较。即使是把与高线公园毗邻的众多明星项目作为“高线”效应或是西切尔西区特殊区划成果一部分，纵然其中不乏有与古根海姆博物馆同等属性的，如以美国当代艺术系列收藏而闻名的惠特妮博物馆 ，也未能显著主导城市的艺术产业市场，这与古根海姆博物馆聚集的新艺术区和毕尔巴鄂老艺术区构成的分别以当代和传统艺术为主题的空间聚落格局不同（图4）。纽约以及高线公园项目的特殊性在于，一方面纽约拥有以切尔西区、上东区的博物馆大道、桥下艺术新区、布鲁克林DUMBO、中城区以及下城区为核心的多个成熟艺术产业群落，不论是以纽约古根海姆博物馆所在的老牌艺术区，还是近20年逐步成熟的西切尔西区，都难以通过明星项目去复兴和统领文化艺术产业（图4）；而另一方面，高线公园虽然不是正统意义上的博物馆，但也发挥着类似艺术博物馆的功能——高线公园是纽约唯一一座致力于多媒体当代艺术活动的公园，2018年专门举办了19场艺术活动，涵盖主题频道、主题活动、表演艺术、定制艺术品四种主要形式，而这些纯艺术活动其实只是平均每周五场左右的公共活动中的一小部分 [21，22]。或是因为有高线公园这一特殊项目的存在，毗邻的苏豪区在90年代后期，画廊数量就开始持续走低，在十年间近乎减半，西切尔西区的画廊数量虽然同样有所下降，但目前仍然保留着较多的文化艺术产业的集群（图4、5）。
Figure 4 Distribution of Museums and Galleries around the High Line Park (left above), Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (right above), and Guggenheim Museum Bilbao (bottom) in Same Scale
Figure 5 228 Galleries Including Temporary Exhibitions Operating in West Chelsea on June of 2019
从全球范围来看，虽然将废弃的高架铁路改造为公园步道并不是纽约高线公园首创，但纽约高线公园成为城市名片之后最显著的影响是这种形式的符号化，让类似高线公园的景观项目层出不穷。据不完全统计全球共有18座这样的公园，如近年建成的澳大利亚新南威尔士“高线公园”（The Goods Line，ASPECT Studios设计，2015年开放）、韩国首尔“高线公园”（Seoul Skygarden，MVRDV设计，2017年开放）、中国西安“高线公园”（曲江创意谷，张唐景观设计，2018年开放）以及规划建设中的，如新加坡“高线公园”、迪拜“高线公园”等（图6）。这些项目大多沿袭了高架上线性公园的形式，而非开发管理模式。
Figure 6 All 18 “High Line” Parks around the World
Figure 7 Highline Network Projects
毕尔巴鄂古根海姆博物馆作为“毕尔巴鄂效应”的主角项目，从计划之初就自带了“古根海姆效应”的光环。当年纽约古根海姆博物馆前馆长、担任西班牙文化部行政顾问的卡门·吉梅内斯正是看中了古根海姆博物馆的强大潜力而向古根海姆基金会提议选址毕尔巴鄂，与当时古根海姆基金会对紧急流动资金的需求和海外业务扩张的需求一拍即合。成立于1937年的古根海姆基金会与1999年由社区居民成立的“高线之友”有着根本的不同——古根海姆基金会在接受毕尔巴鄂邀请时运营纽约馆已超过30年，有着专业的团队致力于品牌的经营模式和当代艺术事业。作为自带产业属性的博物馆项目，古根海姆博物馆激活了毕尔巴鄂本身不够景气的博物馆产业，进而衍生到了艺术文化产业。但其在自身功能上并没有像高线公园一样进行拓展和衍生，依然延续了古根海姆博物馆自身的经营模式。尽管古根海姆博物馆多少有适应性的本土化策略，但毕尔巴鄂市的城市规划与发展的策略性契合以及其他的项目实践主要是由政府主导的非营利机构Bilbao Metropli-30和Bilbao Ria 2000完成的，而这两个组织并无权参与古根海姆博物馆的运营。艺术文化产业的带动属于同性质的产业扩张，这样的产业带动在博物馆与艺术馆附近的街区中颇为常见。全球实践中，“毕尔巴鄂效应”更多是局限于如何通过建一个博物馆美术馆来赚钱的商业模式，但究竟是政府和民间力量成功迎合的功劳更大、还是古根海姆博物馆的带动效果好促成了毕尔巴鄂显著的成功，目前还没有研究可以清晰地论证。
The trend of post-modern cities transforming into global metropolises began in the 1970s. Under the theoretical practice of functional cities for decades, many old industrial and administrative centers in North America and Europe that have been progressively forced aside by living and working, tourism and leisure are structurally transformed into high symbolic and aesthetic cultural centers . The discussions in view of urban planning and design have given the city of this stage a programmatic name called Creative Cities . Since 1990s, a large number of central museum projects and industrial wasteland transformation projects have been launched worldwide, among which are the High Line Park co-designed by James Corner Field Operation, Diller Scofidio + Renfro, Piet Oudolf, and the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao designed by Frank Gehry. As the flagship projects in the early transformation stage of West Chelsea in New York City and downtown Bilbao, these projects have not only become business cards for designers and the specific regions, the High Line Effect and Bilbao Effect are also considered to have greatly renovated the districts, which have become mythological urban renewal paradigms in the field of planning and design and in favor of many politicians [3-5]. Regrettably, most of the urban renewals that followed these two cases did not achieve the expected benefits. How to understand the differences between the two prototype projects thoroughly is particularly important for the development of adaptive strategies for the development of creative cities that still want to emulate such paradigms. This requires thoughts out of the long-term discussed designs and praises to critically reinterpret the differences from those similar signature projects through the discussion of transformation intervention, regional and urban relations, forms and models of expansion, success and failure from a longer project cycle.
1 Starting and Ending Points: the Cultural Industry Transformation and Overall Urban Renovation Catalysed by the Signature Projects
Where does the cultural renaissance of the declining industrial zones come from and go further? The answer is not clear at the initial stage when creative cities thrive with signature projects. That expensive signature projects cannot achieve urban renovation and industrial transformation by "adding a little culture and art" has become the common criticism of many failed projects after the craze . The High Line Park and the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao are not the starting point of a phased renaissance. Also, the transition of the two urban areas through culture and art industry is not out of thin air. As early as 1970, Life magazine ran an edition with the cover of SoHo's Living big in a loft, which has foreshadowed the transformation in NYC inner city of the artists' pioneering pan-culture into a mainstream in means of regional renaissance. With the gentrification of SoHo, artists gradually moved into the nearby West Village from 1980s, and then to the West Chelsea in 1990s where the High Line located[8-9]. Famous galleries such as the Gagosian Gallery had already selected to locate at West Chelsea before the idea of the High Line Park officially announced . Bilbao, a small declining industrial city as described by some articles, has superior cultural and artistic origins than NYC. At least two lines of the famous Gamino de Santiago de Compostela have passed Bilbao since the 19th century, which brought a large number of tourists and businesses, forming an important cultural linkage . The Basque County Government nowadays still values the tourism economy brought by the cultural journey and is very active in supporting the cultural route Camino Frances to enhance its international reputation .
Behind the signature projects are huge support systems of infrastructure, policy incentives and industries. In other words, expensive flagship projects as pieces of business cards for urban and regional revitalization need to be supported around by various signature projects. In nowadays' view to see such projects themselves after one or two decades, the so-called signature projects are actually just a beginning (figure 1). John Alschuler, former chairman of HR&A, the consulting firm responsible for the High Line Park project, believed that the key factor of the successful transformation of West Chelsea lies not in the transformation of the industry itself catalyzed by the High Line Park, but for the first time the special zoning of West Chelsea legally allowed the conversion of pure industrial land into a vibrant residential and commercial zone . Surrounding today's High Line Park, which is already a piece of business card itself, has risen and is continuing rising a number of new signature projects, among which is the IAC tower designed by Frank Gehry (figure 2). Similar to the series of intensive construction projects around the High Line Park within past decades, Bilbao has launched a general clean-up plan since 1979, including the heavily polluted River Nevion . Prior to the cooperation with Guggenheim Foundation in 1991, Bilbao identified "opportunity areas" through urban planning in 1989 and adopted a strategic plan in 1992 . Before the opening of the Guggenheim Museum in 1997, Bilbao completed series of major infrastructure construction such as the new subway opened in 1995 designed by Norman Foster . In addition to the signature architectural projects surrounding the Guggenheim Museum designed by star architects such as Cesar Pelli, Alvaro Siza, and Rafael Moneo, etc. There are also projects over the river like Zorrozaurre Planning, which is done by Zaha Hadid Architects, and the Zubizuri Bridge designed by Santiago Calatrava (figure 3).Bilbao's strategic vision has shifted from "from infrastructure to value (1991~2010)" to "the age of professions (2011~2035)", of which clarifies the transformation of the current culture and tourism industry into specialized high-end services . In view of functionality as time goes by, the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, belonging to the world's leading museums of contemporary art, still plays a significant role in the 3rd decade since its opening. Similarly, the 3rd phase of the High Line Park is directly connected to the Hudson Yards Megaproject which is the largest private property investment in the history of the United States. The first phase of the Hudson Yards will open in 2019 during the 10th anniversary of the opening of the High Line Park and the 20th anniversary of the Friends of the High Line, the non-governmental organization established originally in oppose to the removal of the High Line. The post High Line era remains brilliant. No matter it is the High Line Park or the Guggenheim Museum, the so-called "catalytic effect" is clearly a process from a single signature project to a collection of signature projects.
2 Project for the City, City for the Project: Differences among Positioning and Expectation
Regardless of whether it is from the perspective of architecture, landscape or urban studies, the intervention of High Line Park and the Guggenheim Museum into their regional renovation has the very similarity. American architects Wayne Attoe and Donn Logan came up with the concept of "urban catalyst" in their book American Urban Architecture: Catalysts in the Design of Cities published in 1992. This coincided with the criticism of the landscape urbanism theory Landscape Design proposed in the themed conference held in 1997 by scholars leading by Charles Waldheim . Such conceptual theories together with the Bilbao Effect and High Line Effect as typical theoretical practices, criticized the inability of modern urban planning and skyscrapers advocated in domination by Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright in solving the issues of built environment in contemporary cities, and believed that urban landscape (including landscape architecture) are similar to "catalysts" that can better intervene and organize the urbanization[16-17]. Although at a rough glance, the final results of the High Line Effect and Bilbao Effect are both common revival and prosperity under the leadership of such signature projects, the cities of different scales, the different positioning of the cities, the different ways and extends in which signature projects are involved, as well as different the relationship between the creative industries and urban development are all obvious and concerned.
As a representative of small and medium-sized European cities, Bilbao takes the advantage of policy and finance owing to the autonomy of Basque County that initially positioned the art and culture as pillar industries at the age of depression . In the past few decades, whether from the governmental or non-governmental side, the targeted development of the city, such as urban infrastructure construction, the consumption and sponsorship of art industry, the revival of museums, formation of art blocks, art education and the cultivation of new generation of artists, have all been well catered  , which quickly made Bilbao a global city of art and culture. In comparison, such support that serves the High Line Park around is not available in West Chelsea or NYC. Although the special zoning proposed by the planning department of New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC) did give a certain degree of bonus to West Chelsea, however, these bonuses did not go straight to the art industry on site but promoted the development of high-end real estate. Besides, New York does not seem to exclusively emphasize its position in the global art and culture industry. For example, Bilbao, in title of Creative City of design, is one of the seven Spanish cities in UNESCO's Creative Cities Network, while NYC is not among the nine American cities within the network. The development of the art industry in the West Chelsea should highly attribute to the original art district formed by the artists "expelled" from SoHo and West Village. Although the capital once again adopted and achieved the profitable development model of Soho and West Village, the results have once again "expelled" the original art industry .
In view from the industrial orientation of the project itself, although the High Line Park, as a landscape project, does not have the significant function and industrial orientation as the commercial museum running under the "Guggenheim model", this does not hinder the comparability. Even to see the many signature projects adjacent to the High Line Park as a whole as part of the outcome of the High Line Effect or West Chelsea special zoning, though there are some similar projects like the Guggenheim Museum, such as the Whitney Museum of American Art, which is famous for the collection of American contemporary art , failed to significantly dominate the city's art industry. This is in clear contrast with spatial structure of Bilbao where the Guggenheim Museum dominates the art district of contemporary art and the old art district dominates the traditional art (figure 4). The uniqueness of the New York and High Line Park is that on the one hand, New York has so many developed art industrial clusters centered at Chelsea, Museum Avenue, Lower Bridge, Brooklyn DUMBO, Midtown and Lower City  that whether it is the old art district where the Guggenheim Museum New York stands or the growing West Chelsea is difficult to merely revitalize and lead the cultural and art industry through signature projects (figure 4); On the other hand, although orthodoxically saying the High Line Park is not a museum, it functions as an art museum. The High Line Park is the only park in NYC dedicated to multimedia contemporary art. Within 2018, it organized 19 art events in four categories of channel, plinth, performance and commission. These pure art activities are only a small fraction of the normal public events in frequency of around five per week [21-22]. It might because of the special existence of the High Line Park that although the number of galleries in West Chelsea decreased, compared with the number of galleries in SoHo that began to decline in the late 1990s and nearly halved within 10 years , West Chelsea at least still survives considerable amount of cultural and art industries (figures 4, 5).
3 Replication and Evolution: Forms and Patterns
The High Line Park and the Guggenheim Museum, as "catalysts" and prototypes have expansionary impact after the intervention and aroused series of emerging projects, which seen them as prototype. In comparison under the longer project development cycle, it is not difficult to see the directly or indirectly different logics of the High Line Effect and Bilbao Effect, and the different forms of these emerging projects based on the replication and evolution of the prototypes. The High Line Park, as a landscape project, has activated the surrounding industrial development and urban renewal, of which development is more about the derivation of its own functions rather than the similar High Line projects in the surrounding neighborhoods. In the context of the special cultural and art industries in the West Chelsea, though the High Line Park has "comforted" to position itself for multimedia contemporary art , the Friends of the High Line skillfully takes the advantage of High Line’s basic function as a common trail and park, organizing various community activities, art events, charity events different from those of museums and galleries around. Due to the novelty  created by the High Line Park as an elevated central axis, these activities are basically confined to the park and difficult to be replicated to other public spaces within the West Chelsea. From an international perspective, although the transformation of abandoned elevated railways into parks is not originated from New York's High Line Park, the most significant impact is the semiotization of its form after it ascended to as a piece of city's business card that follows with constant emerging similar projects. Based on incomplete statistics, there are 18 such parks worldwide, such as The Goods Line in New South Wales, Australia, opened in 2015, designed by ASPECT Studios, the Skygarden in Seoul, South Korea, opened in 2017, designed by MVRDV, the 'High Line Park' in Qujiang Creative Valley in Xi'an, China, opened in 2018, designed by T+Z Studio, as well as projects under planning and construction such as the 'High Line Parks' in Singapore and Dubai (figure 6). Most of these projects follow its form as elevated linear parks rather than its mode of development and management.
In view of project development and management, the mode of High Line Park is mainly practiced in North America. Although it has been widely challenged by the gentrification in community engagement and participation, the High Line Park has been officially recognized for the community activities abundantly provided and well organized. Friends of the High Line as one of the eight administration institutions, joined the "Community Parks Initiative" sponsored by the Mayor and the New York Park Commission, to apply the mode of High Line Park to the twelve community parks in Melrose together with a group of volunteers . In addition, Friends of the High Line launched the Highline Network, a non-profit program to support the landscape projects reusing abandoned infrastructure in North America. The vision of it is to redefine a new type of urban landscape that through the exchange of different projects, these projects are supposed to stimulate the potential of unlimited potentials like the High Line Park  (figure 7). Among those 19 projects within the High Line Network, it is worth mention the Low Line, which is still under construction in the Lower East Side of NYC. From the straightforward name to the special site selection background in a low-income community, and the similar form of community engagement at early stage, Low Line Park is undoubtedly replicating the High Line Park as much as possible, and is highly possible to follow the management mode of the High Line Park in the future.
As the leading project of the Bilbao Effect, the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is born with its own aura of the Guggenheim Effect . Carmen Gimenez, former curator of the Guggenheim Museum New York and at that time the administrative advisor of Spanish Ministry of Culture, saw the great potency of the Guggenheim Museum and proposed Bilbao to the Guggenheim Foundation, which happen to meet the demand for urgent liquidity and the expansion of overseas business of Guggenheim Foundation . Founded in 1937, the Guggenheim Foundation is fundamentally different from Friends of the High Line, which is established by community residents in 1999. The running of Guggenheim Museum New York has been more than thirty years by Guggenheim Foundation before invited by Bilbao. There is a mature professional team dedicated to the brand's business and devotion for contemporary art. As a museum project with its own industrial attributes, the Guggenheim Museum has activated Bilbao's booming museum industry and further derived to the art and culture industry. However, it does not expand and derivate like the High Line Park, which goes beyond its own function as a park, but continues the business mode of the Guggenheim Museum itself. Despite the more or less adaptive localization strategy of the Guggenheim Museum, the strategic planning and project practices that fit in are mainly officially led by non-profit governmental institutions Bilbao Metropli-30 and Bilbao Ria 2000, while the two institutions do not have the right to participate in the operation of the Guggenheim Museum. The promotion of the art and cultural industry belongs to the same kind of industrial expansion and are quite common in the neighborhoods near Museums and galleries. In the global practice, the Bilbao Effect is quite limited to the business mode of how to make money through an art museum, but whether such success should be more attributed to Bilbao's government and civil powers that successfully catered it, the renovation effect of Guggenheim Museum has not been clearly demonstrated by any research yet.
4 Success and Critiques: Urban Infrastructure That Goes Beyond
While a large number of post-industrial cities around the world hope to activate urban development through the High Line Effect or Bilbao Effect, on the one hand, based on more and more failed practices and vast studies including the research proposed in this paper dedicated to understand the differentiated similarities and differences of relationship between cities and projects, form and pattern of expansion under the long-term process of regional activation, the old concepts of urban infrastructure no longer fits well into such projects. This is an important reason why many of those that hope to regard these two projects as high-quality infrastructure cannot achieve their goals through mere one beautiful flagship project. Undoubtedly, all these successors can be called signature projects, but they are rarely mentioned in successful short-term economic returns or long-term sustainable mode of development and management.
On the other hand, the project cycle of more than one decade or two of the High Line Park and Guggenheim Museum Bilbao enables us to understand those projects based one longer time span and a more complete development process. In addition to the emphasize on macro community economic development, more and more views challenge the definitions that once in the past define what is successful. Considering that the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao was originally introduced as a wealthy private museum, it was to some extend acceptable to be criticized as an exclusive architecture for the tourism industry . But it is quite ironic while the High Line Park initially launched in aim to provide green open space for the community but finally turns to be a tool for gentrification . Although the High Line Park dose constantly provide a large number of free public activities, the overall gentrification of the whole community has irrevocably banished the original residents and industries . Issues such as gentrification and the rights of low-income groups in urban areas are not within the discussion of this paper, but it is important to realize that these effects are in fact contrary to the good vision of many similar projects . One need to be vigilant of what is actually behind the seemingly flashy signature projects, no matter it is for politicians, professionals that participate in decision-making and urban construction and citizens who have the right to vote for such projects, etc.
Promoting regional revitalization through signature projects is one of the ways to activate urban renewal and is not limited to either the development of landscape architecture or a single strategy system under complex urban relationships. Rather than those newly hot projects, the comparison of project development in cycle of one decade or two based on the two classic cases titled of High Line Effect and Bilbao Effect, it is not hard to recognize the comprehensive support system consisted of various signature projects instead of the seemingly simple one signature project that leads the regional development, and behind the common similarity the fundamental difference between urban positioning and expectation, form and pattern, etc. Such comparative cases dialectically guide the cognition of mutual relationship between the projects themselves, the external environment in which the projects are located, and the relationship between the projects and the environment, providing a more informative and differentiated perspective for interpreting the complex relationship between the signature projects and the sustainable development of the cities.
It is worth to emphasize that the signature projects have no long-term practices for catalyzing the renewal of the post-industrial cities. Under nowadays' rapidly ongoing urban transformation, even the cases that have been regarded successful and mature are still in face of severe challenges. For example, the Guggenheim Museum is dealing with the decline of visitors and the challenge of Bilbao's economic stagnation. While the High Line Park and West Chelsea may also have to compete with the newly developed Hudson Yards Megaproject. In the future, these challenges will provide brand new ways for interpretation and value cognition through evidence-based case studies, and how to timely use the studied advantages to avoid risks in their ways has become a practical need and dilemma for the similar signature projects in different regions. As signature projects beyond traditional urban infrastructure, city decision makers, related industries, citizens, and researchers need to critically look at the gains and losses of these projects from a longer time span and more dimensions.
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（整理：赵迪 译：雷巍 何捷）